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>Revistas >Cirugía y Cirujanos >Año 2007, No. 2


Domínguez-Carrillo LG, Arellano-Aguilar G, Leos-Zierold H
Tiempo unipodal y caídas en el anciano
Cir Cir 2007; 75 (2)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 42
Paginas: 107-112
Archivo PDF: 63.73 Kb.

[Texto completo - PDF]

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Relacionar el tiempo de posición unipodal (TPU) como indicador de caídas en el anciano y corroborar que el ejercicio lo incrementa.
Material y métodos: 168 adultos con edad ≥ 70 años, con dos caídas en los 12 meses previos, comparados con 150 personas similares pero sin caídas. Se llevó a cabo cronometría de TPU y dinamometría de fuerza isométrica de cuadríceps y tríceps braquial. La intervención consistió en un programa de ejercicios de equilibrio y fortalecimiento de músculos antigravitatorios por 20 sesiones. El análisis estadístico se efectuó con χ2, t de Student y Fisher.
Resultados: El grupo control mostró TPU de 28.84 ± 4.73 segundos y en la muestra fue de 19.18 ± 4.24 segundos; no lograron efectuarla 42 individuos (p = 0.05). La valoración final mostró 142 casos con TPU de 30 segundos (p = 0.00001) y fuerza isométrica de músculos estudiados incrementada en 70 y 30 %, respectivamente (p = 0.05). En el seguimiento (seis meses) se reportaron 53 caídas, 29 en quienes inicialmente no pudieron realizar TPU.
Conclusiones: El TPU menor de 30 segundos es un indicador de caídas en el anciano. Es posible incrementarlo con un programa específico de ejercicio, con lo cual puede disminuir el riesgo de caídas.


Palabras clave: Posición unipodal, caídas, anciano.


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