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>Revistas >Revista Médica del Hospital General de México >Año 2002, No. 1


Aristi UG
Parvovirus B19
Rev Med Hosp Gen Mex 2002; 65 (1)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 46
Paginas: 30-35
Archivo PDF: 133.14 Kb.

[Texto completo - PDF]

RESUMEN

El B19 es el único parvovirus patógeno para el humano. La infección primaria ocurre generalmente en la niñez. Infecta eritroblastos e inhibe su actividad mitósica provocando un “arresto” en la eritropoyesis. La forma de presentación depende, en gran medida, del estado inmunológico o hematológico del paciente. En individuos sanos la infección por lo común es asintomática o causa anemia leve, eritema infeccioso o artropatía autolimitada. En contraste, en individuos enfermos la infección con PB19 generalmente es grave. Los grupos de alto riesgo comprenden enfermos con anemias de todo tipo (sobre todo hemolíticas), inmunodepresión, o fetos. Para el diagnóstico pueden emplearse métodos que detectan el virus o su ADN (inmunohistoquímica, hibridación in situ, PCR) o anticuerpos específicos séricos (ELISA). El hallazgo microscópico más característico son grandes inclusiones intranucleares en eritroblastos. Por el momento no hay terapia específica aunque se está desarrollando una vacuna con PB19 recombinante. La principal fuente infecciosa son enfermos con anemia crónica o inmunodeficiencia, por lo que deben ser aislados. En fecha reciente ha aparecido un interés creciente en la investigación de este virus, y hay alguna evidencia de que probablemente participe en muchos otros padecimientos.


Palabras clave: Parvovirus B19, crisis aplásicas, eritema infeccioso, hydrops fetalis.


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