Cirugía y Cirujanos

Contenido por año, Vol. y Num.

Índice de este artículo

Información General

Instrucciones para Autores

Mensajes al Editor


>Revistas >Cirugía y Cirujanos >Año 2014, No. 3

Moreno-Eutimio MA, Acosta-Altamirano G
El inmunometabolismo del ejercicio físico y la vida sedentaria
Cir Cir 2014; 82 (3)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 45
Paginas: 344-351
Archivo PDF: 341.97 Kb.

[Texto completo - PDF]


La vida sedentaria induce la acumulación de grasa visceral, que se acompaña de la infiltración de células inmunitarias con características proinflamatorias en el tejido adiposo, que ocasiona mayor liberación de citocinas y genera un estado inflamatorio de bajo grado, éste se ha asociado con resistencia a la insulina, aterosclerosis, neurodegeneración y tumores. El ejercicio físico puede indicarse como tratamiento para disminuir los síntomas de muchas afecciones porque promueve un estado antiinflamatorio. En esta revisión se analizarán los factores proinflamatorios que coexisten en la obesidad, y la inducción de factores antiinflamatorios que se originan con el ejercicio físico.

Palabras clave: inflamación de bajo grado, ejercicio físico, obesidad, citocinas anti-inflamatorias, citocinas proinflamatorias.


  1. Medzhitov R, Janeway C, Jr. Innate immunity. N Engl J Med 2000;343:338-344.

  2. Serhan CN, Brain SD, Buckley CD, Gilroy DW, Haslett C, O’Neill LA, et al. Resolution of inflammation: state of the art, definitions and terms. FASEB J 2007;21:325-332.

  3. Bianchi ME. DAMPs, PAMPs and alarmins: all we need to know about danger. J Leukoc Biol 2007;81:1-5.

  4. Matzinger P. The Danger Model: A Renewed Sense of Self. Science 2002;296:301-305.

  5. Medzhitov R, Janeway C Jr. Innate immune recognition: mechanisms and pathways. Immunol Rev 2000;173:89-97.

  6. Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 2006;444:860-867.

  7. Ouchi N, Parker JL, Lugus JJ, Walsh K. Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol 2011;11:85-97.

  8. Rook GAw, Dalgleish A. Infection, immunoregulation, and cancer. Immunol Rev 2011;240:141-159.

  9. Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB. Inflammation and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2006;116:1793-1801.

  10. Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive Protein, Interleukin 6, and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. JAMA 2001;286:327-334.

  11. Lumeng CN, Bodzin JL, Saltiel AR. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization. J Clin Invest 2007;117:175-184.

  12. Kawanishi N, Yano H, Yokogawa Y, Suzuki K. Exercise training inhibits inflammation in adipose tissue via both suppression of macrophage infiltration and acceleration of phenotypic switching from M1 to M2 macrophages in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. Exerc Immunol Rev 2010;16:105-118.

  13. Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol 2005;98:1154-1162.

  14. Bianchi ME. DAMPs, PAMPs and alarmins: all we need to know about danger. J Leukoc Biol 2007;81:1-5.

  15. Matzinger P. An Innate Sense of Danger. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;961:341-342.

  16. Medzhitov R. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature 2008;454:428-435.

  17. Serhan CN, Brain SD, Buckley CD, Gilroy DW, Haslett C, O’Neill LAJ, et al. Resolution of inflammation: state of the art, definitions and terms. FASEB J 2007;21:325-332.

  18. Gleeson M. Immune function in sport and exercise. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:693-699.

  19. Pedersen BK, Fischer CP. Beneficial health effects of exercise - the role of IL-6 as a myokine. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2007;28:152-156.

  20. Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol 2005;98:1154-1162.

  21. Keller C, Steensberg A, Hansen AK, Fischer CP, Plomgaard P, Pedersen BK. Effect of exercise, training, and glycogen availability on IL-6 receptor expression in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 2005;99:2075-2079.

  22. Fischer CP. Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance? Exerc Immunol Rev 2006;12:6-33.

  23. Steensberg A, Fischer CP, Keller C, Møller K, Pedersen BK. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003;285:E433-E437.

  24. Maynard CL, Weaver CT. Diversity in the contribution of interleukin-10 to T-cell-mediated immune regulation. Immunol Rev 2008;226:219-233.

  25. Hong EG, Ko HJ, Cho YR, Kim HJ, Ma Z, Yu TY, et al. Interleukin- 10 Prevents Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance by Attenuating Macrophage and Cytokine Response in Skeletal Muscle. Diabetes 2009;58:2525-2535.

  26. Jiao P, Chen Q, Shah S, Du J, Tao B, Tzameli I, et al. Obesity- Related Upregulation of Monocyte Chemotactic Factors in Adipocytes. Involvement of Nuclear Factor-ĸB and c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Pathways. Diabetes 2009;58:104-115.

  27. Cinti S, Mitchell G, Barbatelli G, Murano I, Ceresi E, Faloia E, et al. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J Lipid Res 2005;46:2347-2355.

  28. Bošanská L, Michalský D, Lacinová Z, Dostálova I, Bártlová M, Haluzíková D, et al. The Influence of Obesity and Different Fat Depots on Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Protein Levels of Cell Adhesion Molecules. Physiol Res 2010;59:79-88.

  29. Zoppini G, Targher G, Zamboni C, Venturi C, Cacciatori V, Moghetti P, et al. Effects of moderate-intensity exercise training on plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2006;16:543-549.

  30. Lancaster GI, Khan Q, Drysdale P, Wallace F, Jeukendrup AE, Drayson MT, et al. The physiological regulation of tolllike receptor expression and function in humans. J Physiol 2005;563:945-955.

  31. Flynn MG, McFarlin BK. Toll-Like Receptor 4: Link to the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Exercise? Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2006;34:176-181.

  32. Nguyen MT, Favelyukis S, Nguyen AK, Reichart D, Scott PA, Jenn A, et al. A Subpopulation of Macrophages Infiltrates Hypertrophic Adipose Tissue and Is Activated by Free Fatty Acids via Toll-like Receptors 2 and 4 and JNK-dependent Pathways. J Biol Chem 2007;282:35279-35292.

  33. Belge KU, Dayyani F, Horelt A, Siedlar M, Frankenberger M, Frankenberger B, et al. The Proinflammatory CD14+CD16+DR++ Monocytes Are a Major Source of TNF. J Immunol 2002;168:3536-3542.

  34. Schlitt A, Heine GH, Blankenberg S, Espinola-Klein C, Dopheide JF, Bickel C, et al. CD14+CD16+ monocytes in coronary artery disease and their relationship to serum TNF-α levels. Thromb Haemost 2004;92:419-424.

  35. Giulietti A, van Etten E, Overbergh L, Stoffels K, Bouillon R, Mathieu C. Monocytes from type 2 diabetic patients have a pro-inflammatory profile. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 works as anti-inflammatory. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;77:47- 57.

  36. Simpson RJ, McFarlin BK, McSporran C, Spielmann G, Hartaigh B, Guy K. Toll-like receptor expression on classic and pro-inflammatory blood monocytes after acute exercise in humans. Brain Behav Immun 2009;23:232-239.

  37. Fingerle-Rowson G, Angstwurm M, Andreesen R, Ziegler- Heitbrock HW. Selective depletion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes by glucocorticoid therapy. Clin Exp Immunol 1998;112:501-506.

  38. Sakaguchi S. Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self. Nat Immunol 2005;6:345-352.

  39. Yeh SH, Chuang H, Lin LW, Hsiao CY, Eng HL. Regular tai chi chuan exercise enhances functional mobility and CD4CD25 regulatory T cells. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:239-243.

  40. Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, De Feo P, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, et al. Effect of an Intensive Exercise Intervention Strategy on Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. A Randomized Controlled Trial: The Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES). Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1794-1803.

  41. Cupps TR, Fauci AS. Corticosteroid-Mediated Immunoregulation in Man. Immunol Rev 1982;65:133-155.

  42. Bergmann M, Gornikiewicz A, Sautner T, Waldmann E, Weber T, Mittlböck M, et al. Attenuation of Catecholamine- Induced Immunosuppression in Whole Blood From Patients With Sepsis. Shock 1999;12:421-427.

  43. Andersson U, Tracey KJ. Reflex Principles of Immunological Homeostasis. Annu Rev Immunol 2012;30:313-335.

  44. Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L. Exercise and the Immune System: Regulation, Integration, and Adaptation. Physiol Rev 2000;80:1055-1081.

  45. Matthews CE, Ockene IS, Freedson PS, Rosal MC, Merriam PA, Hebert JR. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and risk of upper-respiratory tract infection. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:1242-1248.

>Revistas >Cirugía y Cirujanos >Año2014, No. 3

· Indice de Publicaciones 
· ligas de Interes 
Derechos Resevados 2007