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>Revistas >Salud Pública de México >Año 2007, No. 3


White EF, Garfein RS, Brouwer KC, Lozada R, Ramos R, Firestone-Cruz M, Pérez SG, Magis-Rodríguez , Conde-Glez CJ, Strathdee SA
Prevalencia de los virus de la hepatitis C y de la inmunodeficiencia humana entre usuarios de drogas intravenosas, en dos ciudades mexicanas fronterizas con los Estados Unidos de America.
salud publica mex 2007; 49 (3)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 61
Paginas: 165-172
Archivo PDF: 174.14 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

Objetivo. Estimar las prevalencias de los virus de hepatitis C (VHC) y de VIH y los comportamientos de riesgo asociados con ellos, entre usuarios de drogas inyectables (UDI) en dos ciudades del norte de México. Material y métodos. Entre febrero y abril de 2005, se reclutaron UDIs en Tijuana (N=222) y en Ciudad Juárez (N=206), mediante un método de muestreo llamado en inglés “respondent-driven sampling” (RDS), lo cual es un sistema basado en cadenas de referencia. Los participantes contestaron una encuesta aplicada por entrevista, la cual indagó acerca de los comportamientos en el uso de drogas durante los seis meses previos. Una muestra de sangre venosa fue colectada de cada individuo, para determinar la presencia de anticuerpos contra VIH y VHC mediante técnicas inmunoenzimáticas. En el caso del VIH la técnica de “Western blot” se aplicó con fines de confirmación. La prevalencia final de anticuerpos contra VHC se hizo mediante un cálculo ajustado, que empleó un estimador poblacional del RDS. Resultados. Las seroprevalencias globales de VHC y VIH, fueron 96% y 2.8%, respectivamente. Estas frecuencias fueron similares entre las muestras de ambas ciudades. La gran mayoría de los UDI (87.5%) manifestó haber transferido a otros sus equipos de inyección usados y a su vez 85.9% de los participantes declaró haber recibido equipos usados de otros. Conclusiones. La seroprevalencia encontrada de VIH fue relativamente alta dada la prevalencia de VIH en la población general y la de VHC fue extremadamente alta entre los UDI estudiados en Tijuana y en Ciudad Juárez. Las prácticas frecuentes de compartimiento de equipo señalan hacia un alto potencial que favorece la transmisión de ambas infecciones investigadas. Por tanto, son necesarias actividades de consejería y pruebas de laboratorio para VHC dirigidas a UDI en México y asimismo intervenciones para reducir el uso compartido de equipos de inyección.


Palabras clave: VHC, VIH, UDI, uso compartido de agujas, México, uso de drogas inyectables.


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>Revistas >Salud Pública de México >Año2007, No. 3
 

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