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>Revistas >Cirujano General >Año 2009, No. 2


Montalvo-Javé EE, Montalvo-Arenas CE, Ortega-León LH, Pena-Sánchez J, Valdés RA, Martínez GA, Abdo-Francis JM, Bernal-Sahagún F
Helicobacter pylori, patología gástrica y cirugía. Descubrimiento que mereció el Premio Nobel en Medicina 2005
Cir Gen 2009; 31 (2)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 71
Paginas: 115-124
Archivo PDF: 75.01 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

Objetivo: Proporcionar una revisión actualizada de la literatura en relación a la infección por Helicobacter pylori (Hp), abordando los aspectos etiológicos, inmunológicos y su relación clínica con el diagnóstico, prevalencia, tratamiento y patología gástrica.
Sede: Departamento de Cirugía, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y los Servicios de Cirugía General y Gastroenterología del Hospital General de México.
Diseño: Trabajo de revisión.
Material y métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando las bases de datos de Medline, Index- Medicus, PubMed y Artemisa, se incluyeron 71 artículos relevantes publicados en relación al tema, con mayor énfasis de 2004 a 2008.
Resultados: Hp es una bacteria gram-negativa, de forma bacilar que coloniza primariamente la mucosa gástrica humana, representa un problema de salud pública mundial, su impacto en la medicina moderna ha sido relevante desde su descubrimiento, en 1984, y su presentación como infección gastrointestinal asociada, desde la edad pediátrica, y con mayor prevalencia en adultos. Existe una estrecha relación entre esta infección y el desarrollo de diversos padecimientos digestivos como la gastritis, la úlcera péptica, lesiones premalignas como la gastritis atrófica y, en especial, el cáncer gástrico. El conocimiento obtenido en relación al Hp, en las últimas décadas, ha sido impresionante, ha revolucionado el campo de la gastroenterología y la cirugía gastrointestinal. Los científicos que lograron este descubrimiento fueron galardonados con el premio Nobel de Medicina en 2005, se trata de los Dres. Barry J. Marshall, gastroenterólogo y J. Robin Warren, patólogo.
Conclusión: El diagnóstico, identificación de la infección por Hp, tratamiento y seguimiento de los casos forma parte fundamental del protocolo de estudio del paciente con “gastritis” y/o enfermedad ácido-péptica. En relación al cáncer de estómago, la infección por Hp participa en la fisiopatología e inflamación crónica del tejido gástrico, así como en las lesiones premalignas tipo MALT.


Palabras clave: Helicobacter pylori, Premio Nobel, cirugía, cáncer, estómago, gastritis, enfermedad ácido-péptica, enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico.


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>Revistas >Cirujano General >Año2009, No. 2
 

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