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>Revistas >Revista Mexicana de Anestesiología >Año 2014, No. 4


Luna-Ortiz P, Flores-Chávez P, Martínez-Rosas M
Las mitocondrias como blanco terapéutico
Rev Mex Anest 2014; 37 (4)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 78
Paginas: 283-296
Archivo PDF: 335.74 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

Las mitocondrias tienen un importante papel en la producción de energía en las células. Además de sus bien conocidos papeles en la fosforilación oxidativa y en el metabolismo, ahora es claro que las mitocondrias son centrales en la muerte celular, neoplasias, en la diferenciación celular, en el sistema inmune innato, en la detección de los niveles de oxígeno y de la hipoxia y en el metabolismo del calcio. Estos organelos están siendo progresivamente reconocidos como elementos clave en muchas áreas de la ciencia biomédica. La alteración de cualquiera de los papeles funcionales de las mitocondrias contribuye a diversas patologías, por lo que hace de este organelo un blanco terapéutico potencialmente importante, aunque no considerado así hasta recientemente. La disfunción mitocondrial está a menudo asociada con el daño oxidativo, la alteración en la homeostasis de calcio, defectos en la síntesis de ATP o con la inducción del poro de la transición de la permeabilidad. Consecuentemente, las terapias diseñadas para prevenir este tipo de daños son benéficas en diversos padecimientos que incluso podrían parecer no relacionados. En esta revisión resaltamos las propiedades biológicas que hacen a la mitocondria elemento determinante de la salud y de la enfermedad. Además se describen las posibles estrategias farmacológicas que están siendo desarrolladas e incluso, algunas que ya se aplican en los seres humanos para corregir la disfunción mitocondrial. La mitocondria considerada como un blanco terapéutico junto con los compuestos que ya se usan para corregir su disfunción daría lugar a lo que llamaríamos farmacología mitocondrial, la cual es una disciplina muy prometedora con un enorme potencial para nuevos abordajes terapéuticos con implicaciones en múltiples patologías.


Palabras clave: mitocondria, farmacología, disfunción mitocondrial, biogénesis mitocondrial.


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