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>Revistas >Gaceta Médica de México >Año 2016, No. 1


García-Gálvez AM, Arias-Montaño JA
Isoformas del receptor a histamina H3 humano: generación, expresión en el sistema nervioso central (SNC) e implicaciones funcionales
Gac Med Mex 2016; 152 (1)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 69
Paginas: 94-102
Archivo PDF: 303.69 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

La histamina es un importante neuromodulador del SNC humano que participa en la regulación de diversas de sus funciones. Las neuronas histaminérgicas se localizan exclusivamente en el núcleo tuberomamilar del hipotálamo, de donde envían axones a otras regiones del cerebro, al cerebelo y a la médula espinal. Los efectos de la histamina se ejercen mediante la activación de cuatro receptores acoplados a proteínas G (GPCR): H1, H2, H3 y H4. En el SNC los tres primeros se expresan de manera importante; el receptor H3 (H3R) se encuentra exclusivamente en las células neuronales como auto o heterorreceptor, y un aspecto relevante es la existencia de isoformas con diferente número de aminoácidos, generadas por el procesamiento alternativo del ARN mensajero (ARNm) precursor. Para el receptor humano se han identificado 20 isoformas con base en la detección del ARNm correspondiente. Un número importante de ellas no son funcionales, ya que carecen de las regiones necesarias para la unión del agonista o para la transducción de señales, pero al menos cinco isoformas muestran funcionalidad al ser expresadas en sistemas heterólogos. En este trabajo se revisan los procesos que generan las diferentes isoformas del H3R humano (hH3R), sus características estructurales, su expresión en el SNC y la información disponible sobre su función.


Palabras clave: Histamina, Receptor H3, Isoformas, Procesamiento alternativo, ARN mensajero, Sistema nervioso central, Neuromodulación.


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