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>Revistas >Revista Alergia México >Año 2005, No. 3


Fabré OD, Varona PP, Suárez MR
Prevalencia de asma en adolescentes cubanos por diferentes criterios clínicos
Revista Alergia México 2005; 52 (3)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 46
Paginas: 132-137
Archivo PDF: 47.92 Kb.

[Texto completo - PDF]

RESUMEN

Antecedentes: a pesar de los conocimientos que existen del asma, su diagnóstico es clínico y su prevalencia depende del criterio del caso. Se han utilizado múltiples metodologías para determinar su prevalencia; el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) es la más reciente, aunque a sus resultados se le atribuyen algunas inconsistencias.
Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de asma de acuerdo con cinco criterios diagnósticos y según los síntomas respiratorios para contribuir a mejorar la calidad del diagnóstico.
Material y método: se tomaron datos de la primera fase del estudio ISAAC del Centro Cubano Playa-Marianao en el 2003. Se encuestaron 3,026 niños de 13 a 14 años y se estimaron las prevalencias de los criterios establecidos; se utilizaron los intervalos de confianza para compararlas entre sí. Las estimaciones se presentaron con 95% de confiabilidad y se aplicó la prueba de la ji al cuadrado y la razón de momios para las tasas de prevalencia por sexo.
Resultados: al comparar las prevalencias globales entre los diferentes criterios, las correspondientes a los criterios I y II fueron estadísticamente significativas. El criterio I resultó ser el menos discriminatorio y el V el de más alto poder para discriminar. El criterio III ofreció un valor intermedio de prevalencia, con adecuado nivel para discernir. Los tres primeros criterios tuvieron prevalencias mayores en las mujeres, con valores estadísticamente significativos entre uno y otro sexo (p = 0.002, p = 0.045 y p = 0.008, respectivamente).
Conclusiones: sería de gran utilidad emplear un criterio que incluyera varios síntomas, sobre todo en los países de bajos ingresos donde no cuentan con los actuales y costosos medios diagnósticos. Ello contribuiría a disminuir el error diagnóstico.


Palabras clave: prevalencia, criterio clínico, diagnóstico, asma, síntomas respiratorios, 13 a 14 años, Cuba.


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>Revistas >Revista Alergia México >Año2005, No. 3
 

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