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>Revistas >TIP Revista Especializada en Ciencias Químico-Biológicas >Año 2005, No. 2


Lee-Rivera I, López-Colomé AM
Relación de la estructura de los receptores NMDA con su función en la retina
TIP Rev Esp Cienc Quim Biol 2005; 8 (2)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 54
Paginas: 71-81
Archivo PDF: 211.33 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

La función del glutamato en la retina, como neurotransmisor, factor trófico o neurotoxina, se relaciona directamente con la diversidad y la composición heteromérica de sus receptores. Los receptores de glutamato de tipo NMDA (NMDARs) son tetrámeros integrados por dos subunidades NR1, que forman un canal iónico permeable al calcio, y subunidades NR2 y NR3, que modulan su actividad. Los NMDARs de la retina incluyen subunidades NR2, así como variantes postranscripcionales de NR1 específicas, tanto en el tejido diferenciado como el embrionario, cuya estructura determina diferencias funcionales significativas entre el cerebro y la retina. Consecuentemente, fármacos que protegen a las neuronas de la excitotoxicidad del glutamato en el cerebro, no tienen efecto en la retina. La repercusión clínica de estos resultados es evidente, ya que permitirá, en el futuro, el diseño de compuestos protectores de la muerte neuronal en la retina en padecimientos relacionados con la elevación de la concentración extracelular del glutamato, como el glaucoma, la oclusión vascular, la neuropatía óptica y la isquemia, entre otros.


Palabras clave: Desarrollo embrionario, neurotransmisión, NR1, NR2, receptor de glutamato.


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>Revistas >TIP Revista Especializada en Ciencias Químico-Biológicas >Año2005, No. 2
 

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