Revista Mexicana de Neurociencia

Contenido por año, Vol. y Num.

Índice de este artículo

Información General

Instrucciones para Autores

Mensajes al Editor


>Revistas >Revista Mexicana de Neurociencia >Año 2018, No. 4

Grisold W, Grisold S
Placebo, nocebo y ningún tratamiento
Rev Mex Neuroci 2018; 19 (4)

Idioma: Inglés
Referencias bibliográficas: 48
Paginas: 4-15
Archivo PDF: 306.26 Kb.

Texto completo


El significado de gran alcance de los efectos placebo y nocebo a menudo se subestiman o son ignorados en la práctica clínica. Actualmente, el término placebo se usa: (1) en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (RCTs, por sus siglas en inglés); (2) para describir un tratamiento simulado en varios matices y (3) describe los efectos a menudo atribuidos a los curanderos. Esto difiere del “no tratamiento”, que tiene implicaciones completamente diferentes. Aún menos aceptado es el término nocebo, que literalmente significa “que dañará”. Como placebo, este término puede ser ambiguo y puede aparecer de muchas maneras ocultas. La investigación en los últimos años se ha basado en experimentos, estudios elaborados y en estudios de imágenes. El placebo y nocebo también tienen antecedentes empíricos y científicos. Además, aspectos éticos conciernen a los conceptos placebo y nocebo, en particular con respecto a las relaciones cambiantes de la relación médico-paciente, que afecta a ambos términos. Con base en dicho conocimiento, cada vez más médicos y pacientes son conscientes de estos fenómenos, y será importante concientizar no solo a los médicos, sino también al personal de atención médica involucrado en el tratamiento de los pacientes.

Palabras clave: placebo, nocebo, ningún tratamiento, mecanismos, ética.


  1. Thompson WG, The placebo effect and health. Book: Prometheus Book. NY, 2003.

  2. Kradin, RL., The Placebo Response and the Power of Unconscious Healing Book: Routledge. Taylor and Francis group. New York London: p. 1-292. 2008.

  3. Brown, WA., The placebo effect in clinical practice. Oxford university Press. 2013.

  4. Howick J, C.F., Tsakok M, Watson R, et al. Are Treatments More Effective than Placebos? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 May 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 5 | e62599, 2013.

  5. Shapiro AK, Shapiro MD., The Powerful Placebo: From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician. The John Hopkins University Press, 1997.

  6. Woldeamanuel, Y.W., Andreou AP, Cowan RP. Prevalence of migraine headache and its weight on neurological burden in Africa: a 43-year systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based studies. J Neurol Sci. 2014. 342 (1-2): p. 1-15.

  7. Benedetti, F, Placebo and the new physiology of the doctor-patient relationship. Physiol Rev. 2013. 93 (3): p. 1207-46.

  8. Abdulraheem, S. and L. Bondemark, Hawthorne effect reporting in orthodontic randomized controlled trials: truth or myth? Blessing or curse? Eur J Orthod. 2017.

  9. Cuerda-Galindo, Sierra Valenti X, Gonzales Kopes E et al. Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2014. 105 (9): p. 847-53.

  10. Lucas, V. and S. Booth, The importance of placebo effects in enhancing palliative care interventions. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2014. 4 (2): p. 212-216.

  11. Hall, K.T., J. Loscalzo, and T.J. Kaptchuk, Genetics and the placebo effect: the placebome. Trends Mol Med. 2015. 21(5): p. 285-94.

  12. Vase, L., I. Skyt, and K.T. Hall, Placebo, nocebo, and neuropathic pain. Pain. 2016. 157 Suppl 1: p. S98-105.

  13. Benedetti, F.Enck P, Frisaldi L. Placebo. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 225. Springer. ISBN 978-3-662-44519-8 (eBook), 2014.

  14. Colagiuri, B., Schenk LA; Kessler MD, et al. The placebo effect: From concepts to genes. Neuroscience. 2015. 307: p. 171-190.

  15. Benedetti, F. and Dogue S, Different Placebos, Different Mechanisms, Different Outcomes: Lessons for Clinical Trials. PLoS One. 2015. 10 (11): p. e0140967.

  16. Benedetti F, Carlino E, Pollo A. How Placebos Change the Patient’s Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology REVIEWS. (2011) 36, 339–354, 2011.

  17. Finnissa DG, T.J.K., Miller F, Benedettid F, Placebo Effects: Biological, Clinical and Ethical Advances. Lancet. 2010 February 20; 375 (9715): 686–695. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736 (09)61706-2., 2010.

  18. Papakostas GI, Fava M. Does the probability of receiving placebo influence clinical trial outcome? A metaregression of double-blind, randomized clinical trials in MDD. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 19 (2009) 34–40, 2009.

  19. Colloca L1, Miller FG. How placebo responses are formed: a learning perspective. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011; 366:1859-1869

  20. Linde K, C.F. ,Alscher A, Schneider A, Verwendung komplementärer Therapien und Einsatz von Placebos durch niedergelassene Ärzte in Deutschland. „ Use of Complementary Therapies and Placebos by German Physicians Working in Private Practice.“ Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag | ZFA | Z Allg Med | 2015; 91 (6), 2015.

  21. Moerman, D.E., Meaning, Medicine, and the “Placebo Effect”. Cambridge University press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, 2002.

  22. Sheldon, R. and M. Opie-Moran, The Placebo Effect in Cardiology: Understanding and Using It. Can J Cardiol. 2017. 33 (12): p. 1,535-1,542.

  23. Kraft-Todd, G.T.,Reienero DA, Kelley JM et al. Empathic nonverbal behavior increases ratings of both warmth and competence in a medical context. PLoS One. 2017. 12 (5): p. e0177758.

  24. Braga-Simoes, J., P.S. Costa, and J. Yaphe, Placebo prescription and empathy of the physician: A crosssectional study. Eur J Gen Pract. 2017. 23 (1): p. 98-104.

  25. Jarrad R , Hammad S Shawashi T. Compassion fatigue and substance use among nurses. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018. 17: p. 13.

  26. Chisholm, C.,Heybourn R, Short T et al . Reflections about “burn-out”. Acad Emerg Med. 2009. 16 (6): p. 567-71.

  27. Green, G., A burnt out case. 1960. (Book)

  28. Sinclair, S, Beamer S, Hack TF. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences. Palliat Med. 2017. 31 (5): p. 437-447.

  29. Reddy, N.K.A., Santosh., Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude. (https://books.google.com/books?id=YLly CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA146). McGraw-Hill Education. p. 146. ISBN 978-93-5134-236-6., 2014.

  30. Bostick NA, Sade R. Levine R et al, Placebo Use in Clinical Practice:Report of the American Medical Association Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. The Journal of Clinical Ethics. 19, 2018. 19: p. 58-61.

  31. Ashraf, B., Saaiq M, Zaman KU, Qualitative study of Nocebo Phenomenon (NP) involved in doctor-patient communication. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2014. 3 (1): p. 23-7.

  32. Hauser, W., E. Hansen, and P. Enck, Nocebo phenomena in medicine: their relevance in everyday clinical practice. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012. 109 (26): p. 459-65.

  33. Benson, H., The nocebo effect: history and physiology. Prev Med. 1997. 26 (5 Pt 1): p. 612-5.

  34. Vinker, S., V. Eliyahu, and J. Yaphe, The effect of drug information leaflets on patient behavior. Isr Med Assoc J. 2007. 9 (5): p. 383-6.

  35. Der Spiegel, (magazine), Arzneimittelrisiken: Verstehen Sie den Beipackzettel? (in German) 28/2017, 2017.

  36. Planes, S., C. Villier, and M. Mallaret, The nocebo effect of drugs. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2016. 4 (2): p. e00208.

  37. Barsky AJ1, Saintfort R, Rogers MP, et al. Nonspecific medication side effects and the nocebo phenomenon. JAMA. 2002. 287 (5): p. 622-7.

  38. Loewy, E.H., Spinger R. The Ethics of Terminal Care Orchestrating the End of Life. Kluwer Academic Publishers. New York Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.

  39. Bok, S., The ethics of giving placebos. Sci Am. 1974. 231 (5): p. 17-23.

  40. Brody, H., The lie that heals: the ethics of giving placebos. Ann Intern Med. 1982. 97 (1): p. 112-8.

  41. Kaptchuk TJ, Kelley FE, Sanchez JM et al: PLoS One 2010, 5:e15591., Placebos without deception: a randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One. 2010, 5:e15591., 2010.

  42. Castaneda R, Lifshutz H, Galanter M, et al Empirical assessment of the self-medication hypothesis among dually diagnosed inpatients. Compr Psychiatry. 1994. 35 (3): p. 180-4.

  43. Avins AL, Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ ,et al Should we reconsider the routine use of placebo controls in clinical research? Avins et al. Trials 2012, 13:44 http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/13/1/44, 2012.


  45. Kaptchuk, T.J. Acupuncture: theory, efficacy, and practice. Ann Intern Med. 2002. 136 (5): p. 374-83.

  46. Pan, C.X.,Morrison RS, Ness J, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine in the management of pain, dyspnea, and nausea and vomiting near the end of life. A systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000. 20 (5): p. 374-87.

  47. Pan, S.Y., , Gao SH, Zhou SF,et al. New perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine: an overview and alternative therapy. Altern Ther Health Med. 2012. 18 (4): p. 20-36.

  48. De la Cruz, M.,Hui D , Parsons HA, et al Placebo and nocebo effects in randomized double-blind clinical trials of agents for the therapy for fatigue in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer. 2010. 116 (3): p. 766-74.

>Revistas >Revista Mexicana de Neurociencia >Año2018, No. 4

· Indice de Publicaciones 
· ligas de Interes 

Derechos Resevados 2019