2022, Number 2
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ABSTRACTMyelodysplastic syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that affect hematopoietic stem cells, which are related to an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Its clinical presentation is highly variable and should be suspected in the presence of persistent cytopenias without clear cause. The cornerstone of the diagnosis is bone marrow biopsy, where dysplastic changes in one or more cell lines, the presence of ringed sideroblasts, the number of blasts and the cytogenetic study make it possible to classify this disease in six different subtypes. Currently, several scores are available to estimate the prognosis leading to an appropriate choice of treatment based on survival and the risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. This work updates the available literature regarding diagnosis, classification, prognosis systems and treatment of the myelodysplastic syndromes with the objective of providing the non-hematologist with tools that allow early detection and directing the hematologist to a timely treatment.
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