2006, Number 6
Cir Cir 2006; 74 (6)
Pinedo OJA, Guevara TL, Sánchez AJM
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ABSTRACTBackground: The abdomen ranks in third place of body areas injured by trauma. Evaluation and stabilization of these patients form the cornerstone in emergency medicine. Diagnostic approach and treatment outcome are influenced by several factors. Injury mechanism and pattern vary according to geography and there is an association with drugs and alcohol. Physical examination remains the most reliable indicator for surgery. Associated injuries are present in up to 26 % of cases. We undertook this study to determine penetrating abdominal trauma incidence and frequency, demographic factors, rate of immediate and delayed laparotomies, and associated complications as well as to define the usefulness of penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI).
Methods: An observational, prospective, longitudinal descriptive study was carried out at the Hospital Central “Ignacio Morones Prieto”, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005 on patients who underwent exploratory laparotomy for penetrating abdominal trauma. Twenty one variables were studied. Basic statistical analysis, ANOVA, χ2 and Student’s t-test test were used.
Results: Of the 79 patients who were included, 93.67 % were males. The third decade of life was the most affected, with a night presentation being predominant as a result of personal violence. Drug use was observed in 50.6 %; stab wounds in 63.3 %. The most frequent locations were the left upper and right lower quadrants and epigastrium; solitary wounds were predominant. Associated injuries were most common in the thorax and limbs. Of the laparotomies performed, 92.4 % were urgent and 60.53 % were therapeutic; 15.19 % required reoperations; complications were observed in 39.24 %; and mortality rate was 3.9 %.
Conclusion: Due to high non-therapeutic and negative laparotomies rates, a more selective approach is needed, including repetitive physical examination and the appropriate use of auxiliary diagnostic studies.