2005, Number 2
PDF size: 96.23 Kb.
ABSTRACTIntroduction: Human prostate cancer has become one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in North America. In Mexico data from INEGI/SSA 2000 the second cause of death in men. Epidemiological studies have implied environmental factors, specially diet components, as the most risky factors in prostate cancer development. There is just a little known about the mechanisms involved in such a development. Environmental and occupational studies suggest that there is a potential participation of Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) in prostate cancer etiology. Cadmium probably acts through indirect mechanisms, since it is an antagonist element to Zinc; that is to say, it can displace Zn from its protein and/or enzyme joint place. It has been demonstrated in vitro that Zn is involved in the structural p53 conformation and that a chelation or substitution of it gets a loss of p53 function. The objective of this sudy was to establish and compare cadmium an zinc concentrations in prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostate hyperplasia (HPB) tissue of patients from the General Hospital number 8, zone at Mexico City. Material and methods: The study was performed using samples from prostatic tissue taken by transurethral resection (TUR) carried out in patients through clinical diagnosis of CaP and HPB, in the General Hospital of Zone No. 8 in Mexico City, during the months of June-August of the current year. According to the findings of the Service of Pathological Anatomy, two groups were formed, the group No.1 was constituted by 50 samples of tissue from CaP, and the group No. 2 by 10 samples of tissue from HPB, as well as a control group with one sample of prostatic tissue without either CaP or HPB. The methodology employed to perform the measurements of these metals was through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of each group are presented as the mean ± SD (Standard Deviation), Student’s “t” is used to compare both groups, and Pearson’s “r” is employed to analyze the correlation among the quantitative variables. Results: The average ages of the patients with CaP, HPB, and neither HPB nor CaP were 63.2 ± 9.5, 67.5 ± 9.2, and 65 respectively. The APE average concentrations in CaP, HPB, and neither CaP nor HPB were 37.1 ± 34.6, 5.41 ± 6.2, and 2.8 respectively. Zn average concentration (µg/g of dry weight) was greater in HPB (313.2 ± 249.6) than in CaP (60.9 ± 55.2). When applying Student’s “t” a value of 3.16 was obtained (p value = 0.010). Cadmium concentration (µg/g of dry weight) was greater in CaP (49.1 ± 120.1) than in HPB (37.5 ± 135.4); however, when applying Student’s “t” a value of -0.25 was obtained (p value = 0.34). The correlation (Pearson’s “r”) between Zinc and Cadmium in HPB was -0.08, the correlation between age and Zinc was -0.03, age and Cd 0.23. Conclusions: 1). The average Zinc concentration was greater in HPB than in CaP, what was statistically significant; this is to say that in prostate cancer, Zn is present in a lower concentration. 2). In the analyzed population, the average Zn concentration both in HPB and in CaP is similar than the ones found in other studies performed in other populations; however, Cd average concentration was different from the one described by other authors. 3). The average Cadmium concentration was greater in CaP than in HPB; however, this measurement was statistically non-significant. 4). A low correlation was found between both Cadmium and Zinc concentrations in HPB and CaP.
Nelson WG, De Marzo AM, DeWeese LT. The molecular pathogenesis of prostate cancer: Implications for prostate cancer prevention. Urology 2001; 57 (4): 39-45.
Thomas JA. Diet micronutrients and the prostate gland. Nutr Rev 1999; 57 (4): 95-103.
Schulman CC, Ekane S and Zlotta RA. Nutrition and prostate cancer: Evidence or suspicion. Urology 2001; 58 (3): 318-334.
Lagiou P, Wuu A, Trichopoulous J. Diet and benign prostatic hyperplasia: A study in Greece. Urology 2000; 54 (2): 284-290.
Brys M, Agnieska D. Zinc and cadmium analysis in human prostate neoplasms. Biol Trac Element Res 1997; 59: 145-151.
Walkes MP. Cadmium carcinogenesis in review. J Inorg Biochem 2000; 79 (1-4): 241-244.
Min Li, Kondo T, Zhao Q. Apoptosis induced by cadmium in human lymphoma U937 cell trough Ca2+-calpain and caspase-mitochondria-dependet pathway. J Biol Chem 2000; 275 (50): 39702-39709.
Hsiu-Chuan VL, Freedman HJ. Cadmium-regulated genes from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Biol Chem 1998; 273 (48): 31962-31970.
Hoffmann L, Putzke HP, Kampehl HJ. Carcinogenic effect of cadmium on the prostate of the rat. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1985; 109 (3): 193-199.
Pius J, Lei JX, Whong WZ. Oncogenic potential of mouse translation elongation factor -1d, a Novel cadmium-responsive protooncogene. J Biol Chem 2002; 277 (8): 6131-6136.
Wang Z, Templeton MD. Induction of c-fos proto-oncogene in mesangial cell by cadmium. J Biol Chem 1998; 273 (1): 73-79.
Achanzar EW, Diwan AB. Cadmium-induced malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cell. Cancer Res 2001; 61, 455-458.
Yasunaga KN, Ko D. Cadmium-induced neoplastic transformation of human prostate epithelial cell. Inter J Oncol 2002; 20 (3): 543-547.
Waalkes MP, Wahba ZZ, Rodriguez RE. Toxicology. Cap 77, Cadmium in hazardous materials. USA: Sullivan, 1992.
Shama RP, Kjellstrom W. Cadmium in blood and urine among smokers and non-smokers with high cadmium intake via food. Toxicology 1983; 29 (1-2): 163-171.
Isselbacher JK, Braunwald E. Principles of Internal Medicine. Harrison. 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Sipowicz PL. Influence of high lead and cadmium soil content on human reproductive outcome. Intern J Gynecol Obstet 1991; 366: 309-315.
Chamber RC, Mc anully RJ. Cadmium selectively inhibits fibroblast procollagen production and proliferation. Am J Physiol 1994; 257: 300-308.
Kowal NE. Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin: correlation with nutrition and smoking history. J Toxicol Environ Health 1988; 25 (2): 179-183.
Fels LM. Risk assessment of nefrotoxicity of cadmium. Renal Fail 1999; 21 (3-4): 275-281.
Liang JY, Liu YY. Inhibitory effect of zinc on human prostatic carcinoma cell. Prostate 1999; 40 (3): 200-207.
Iguchi K, Hamatake M. Induction of necrosis by zinc in prostate carcinoma cells and identification of protein increased in association with this induction. Eur J Biochem 1998. 253: 766-770.
Bataineh ZM. Nuclear zinc in the three lobes of the rat prostate gland. Citobios 2001; 105 (408): 7-17.
Feng P, Liang JY. Zinc induced mitochondrial apoptogenesis in prostate cells. Mol Urol 2000; 4 (1): 31-36.
Feng P, Li TL, Guan ZX. Direct effect of zinc on mitochondrial apoptogenesis in prostate cells. Prostate 2002; 52 (4): 311-318.
Liang JY, Liu YY. Inhibitory effect of zinc on human prostatic carcinoma cell growth. Prostate 1999; 40 (3): 200-207.
Fisher D. Toxicology. Cap 80, Zinc in hazardous materials, USA: Sullivan, 1992.
Platz AE, Helxlsouer JK. Selenium, zinc, and prostate cancer. Epidem Rev 2001; 23 (1): 93-101.
Hsiu V, Dong J. Molecular characterization of a novel, cadmium-inducible gene from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Biol Chem 2002; 177 (44): 42049-42049.
Ogunlewe OJ, Osegbe ND. Zinc and cadmium concentration in indigenous blacks with normal, hypertrophic, and malignant prostate. Cancer 1989; 63: 1388-1392.
Smirnova VI, Bittel CD. Zinc and cadmium can promote rapid nuclear translocation of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. J Biol Chem 2000; 275 (13): 9377-9384.
Méplan C, Mann K, Hainaut P. Cadmium induces conformational modification of wild-type p53 and suppresses p53 response to DNA damage in cultured cell. J Biol Chem 1999; 274 (44): 31663-31670.
Alba G. Stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is an early regulatory event for the cadmium-induced apoptosis in human promonocytic cell. J Biol Chem 2000; 275 (15): 11418-11424.
Benters JL. Study of the interaction of cadmium and zinc ions with cellular calcium homeostasis using F-NMR spectroscopy. Biochem J 1997; 322: 793-799.
Zaichick V. Zinc in the human prostate gland: normal, hyperplastic and cancerous. Int Urol Nephrol 1997; 29 (5): 565-574.
Dawson SB. Estimación y comparación de medias. Bioestadística médica. 2a ed. México: Manual Moderno, 1997.