2011, Number 4
Acta Pediatr Mex 2011; 32 (4)
Lombardo-Aburto E, Hernández-Orozco H, Orozco H, Soto E, Haro A, González-Saldaña N, Caniza M
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ABSTRACTIntroduction. Intensive care units (ICU) have the largest number of nosocomial infections because of the severity of the patients’ illness as well as of the use of invasive procedures which predispose to longer hospitalization and to increase the risk of acquiring an infection. Consequently it is necessary to conduct a more comprehensive active surveillance in those units.
Objective. To determine the methodology to conduct ICU surveillance and to identify the indicators.
Material and methods. The study design was cross sectional; it took place from 12 to 14 April 2010 in the ICU of the National Institute of Pediatrics as a part of the Intensive Course on Infection Prevention and Control. The first step was to determine the tools to conduct surveillance in the service. Cases of nosocomial infection (NI) were those meeting international diagnostic criteria established by the Center for Infection Control (CDC). The second stage included monitoring the Intensive Care Unit including hospitalized patients in that period, regardless of the cause of admission and length of hospital stay.
Results. A total of 14 patients were hospitalized with an average age of 5.2 years (1-17). 57% (8 patients) of them acquired a nosocomial infection with an attack rate of 50%. Three of them had pneumonia (37.5%), 2 of which were not ventilator-associated; 3 had urinary tract infections (37.5%), 2 of whom were associated with urinary catheter; and 2 had bacteremia (25%); 1 had catheter-related bacteremia.
Discussion. Although the study period was short it supports the need for a close surveillance program that includes monitoring prevention by hand hygiene and proper aseptic management of invasive procedures to reduce nosocomial infection rates