2012, Number 2
Otorrinolaringología 2012; 57 (2)
Paz PYG, Medina CH, Loman ZÓA, Jiménez ADA, Labra A, Contreras GN, Haro VR, Sánchez NF
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ABSTRACTThe metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL cholesterol. It is proposed that the syndrome may include obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and then called “Syndrome Z”. Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repeated episodes of apnea during sleep. A mechanism for the hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obstructive sleep apnea is that the level of activity of pharyngeal dilator muscle may be diminished in the presence of insulin resistance as well as the alteration in arterial muscle tone. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin, substances with endocrine functions have been associated with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hypoxia and desaturation during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea may induce oxidative stress involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. For the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome approach stands out most is Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III), 2001. Obstructive sleep apnea also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, reduces quality of life, promoting traffic and domestic labor accidents, increasing the risk of death. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure devices (CPAP) improves glycemic control and reduces blood pressure and symptoms related to sleep-disordered breathing.