2012, Number 2
Rev Cub Med Mil 2012; 41 (2)
Pérez CH, Romero FJ, Damas MD, García SE, Reyes HD
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ABSTRACTObjective: describe the results of the use of bronchoscopy to diagnose respiratory diseases.
Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 116 patients who underwent bronchoscopy. The variables studied were age, gender, race, diagnostic indication, radiological findings, positivity of the techniques applied, diagnostic yield and procedural complications. The data obtained were summarized by means of simple frequencies, ranges and percentage. Chi-square tests of statistical significance were applied and the confidence interval was 95 %. The odds ratio was used to determine the association between variables.
Results: 73.2 % of the sample were men aged 51-70, and 52.6 % showed elements of radiological suspicion of cancer as diagnostic indication. Hilar widening was the radiological finding most commonly reported (30.1 %), and was associated with a higher diagnostic yield. Cancer was the most commonly diagnosed condition (68.0 %). 70.3 % of cases showed agreement between macroscopic and microscopic diagnoses. Endobronchial biopsy with forceps exhibited a higher diagnostic positivity (66.6 %). Bleeding and hypoxia were reported as minor complications in 10.35 % of cases.
Conclusions: bronchoscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Its highest yield is recorded in the presence of clinical-radiological suspicion of cancer, mainly when findings arouse suspicion of central localizations, which makes endobronchial biopsy with forceps the most useful technique in those cases. The occurrence of infrequent minor complications is associated with the application of techniques.