2012, Number 3
Rev Latinoam Psiquiatría 2012; 11 (3)
Actualidades en neurobiología de la depresión
Díaz VBA, González GC
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Depression is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder. There are now multiple antidepressant treatments, however, not all patients respond
to them. This has led to the search for processes that are involved in this disease. There is evidence implicating multiple pathophysiological
aspects that influence this condition, suggesting that this is a heterogeneous disorder. There differences in the size of several brain
structures like the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex and changes in the metabolism, the neuronal size and glial density. It
has been widely known the involvement of monoamines, current research focuses on the metabolism and the role of the transports and
their polymorphisms. There have also been implicated other neurotransmitters such GABA and glutamate, and its role in neuronal cytotoxicity.
Another model is the explain how the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early stress affects the genesis of depression. It has
been found the expression of BDNF that may contribute to the atrophy of brain structures in response to stress in depressed patients and
how this factor in animal model produces antidepressant effects. Recently there has been the involvement of inflammation in depression,
the protein of IFN-α, to produce depression and a strong association of pro-inflammatory cytokines with depression. Understanding the
mechanisms underlying the MDT is useful to search for new effective therapeutic strategies.
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