2013, Number 2
Perinatol Reprod Hum 2013; 27 (2)
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ABSTRACTGonococcal urethritis is one of the most common syndromes related to sexual transmission. There are many factors that influence that its actual occurrence be unknown, like the social stigma that represent this infection and the self-medication; so the number of cases of gonococcal urethritis can be more than twice that are reported to the official statistics. The mucous membranes of the genital organs constitute the main route of entry of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This is a microorganism that cannot survive for long time outside the host, is only transmitted from person to person by direct contact and colonize the columnar epithelium cells of the urethra and cervix, as well as the mucous membrane of the throat and rectum. The most common manifestation of gonorrhea is urethritis, but in women the course is often subclinical or manifested by cervicitis. In women gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, while in men it can produce urethral stenosis, epididymitis and acute or chronic prostatitis. The newborn children of women with gonorrhea may develop a conjunctival infection. Treatment currently recommended includes fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins of third generation, spectinomycin, and azithromycin. However, antimicrobial resistance against several of these agents has been identified in various countries. The rate of antimicrobial resistance is greater in countries where there is no regulation for the use of antimicrobials.