2005, Number 4
PDF size: 87.27 Kb.
ABSTRACTIntroduction: The term “metabolically obese but normal weight subjects” has been used to describe adults who have normal body weight but display one or more symptoms of obesity related to morbidity.
Objective: To determine the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents with and without obesity.
Material and methods: Cross-sectional study that compares 55 obese and 110 non-obese apparently healthy children and adolescents from 10 to 15 years old. Age and sex were matched criteria. Anthropometric variables and laboratory measurements were collected.
Results: The cardiovascular risk factors identified were: high blood pressure (4.5 and 6.7 %) impaired fasting glucose (6.4 and 14.5 %), hypertri-glyceridemia (7.3 and 29.1 %), and low HDL-cholesterol levels (8.2 and 30.9 %) for the children and adolescents without and with obesity, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was identified only in the obesity group (14.5 %).
Conclusions: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was identified among children and adolescents, even in those who do not have obesity, which suggests that metabolically obese but normal weight individuals can be identified at an early age.
Consenso Mexicano sobre el Tratamiento Integral del Síndrome Metabólico. Rev Mex Cardiol 2002; 13:4-30.
2. Guo S, Salisbury S, Roche AF, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and body composition: a review. Nutr Res 1994;11:1721-1777.
3. Howard BV, Mayer-Davis EJ, Goff D, Zaccaro DJ, Laws A, Robbins DC, Saad MF, Selby J, Hamman RF, Krauss RM, Haffner SM. Relationships between insulin resistance and lipoproteins in nondiabetic African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Metabolism 1998;47:1174-1179.
4. Smoak CG, Burke GL, Webber LS, Harsha DW, Srinivisan SR, Berenson GS. Relation of obesity to clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 1987;125:364-372.
5. Lena Vega G. Results of Expert Meetings: Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease. Am Heart J 2001;142: 1108-1116.
6. Ruderman NB, Schneider SH, Berchtold P. The “metabolically-obese”, normal-weight individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:1617-1621.
7. Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, Allen K, Lopes M, Savoye M, Morrison J, Sherwin RS, Caprio S. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2362-2374.
8. Rodríguez-Morán M, Salazar-Vázquez B, Violante R, Guerrero-Romero F. Metabolic syndrome among Children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2516-2517.
9. Cook S, Weitzman M, Auinger P, Nguyen M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents. Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003;157:821-827.
Csabi G, Torok K, Jeges S, Molnar D. Presence of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in obese children. Eur J Pediatr 2000;59:91-94.
Young-Hyman D, Schlundt DG, Herman L, De Luca F, Counts D. Evaluation of the insulin resistance syndrome in 5- to 10-year old overweight/obese African-American children. Diabetes Care 2001;4: 1359-1364.
Steinberg J, Daniels SR. Obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in children. An American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee (Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young) and the Diabetes Committee (Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism). Circulation 2003;107:1448-1453.
Goldstein JL, Schrott HG, Hazzard WR, et al. Hyperlipidemia in coronary heart disease, genetic analysis of lipid levels in 176 families and delineation of a new inherited disorder, combined hyperlipidemia. J Clin Invest 1973;52:1544-1568.
Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of high Blood Pressure. The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of high Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157(21):2413-2446.
The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Clas-sification of Diabetes Mellitus: Follow-up report on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3160-3167.
National Cholesterol Education Panel. Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication; 1991;91;2732.
Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Elkasabany A, Berenson GS. Cardiovascular risk factors clustering features of insulin resistance syndrome (syndrome X) in a biracial (black-white) population of children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Diabetes 2000;49:1042-1048.
Aguilar-Salinas CA, Olaiz G, Valles V, Ríos Torres JM, et al. High prevalence of low HDL cholesterol concentrations and mixed dyslipidemia in a Mexican nationwide survey. J Lipid Res 2001;42: 1298-1307.
Sinha R, Fisch G, Teague B, Tamborlane WV, Banyas B, Allen K, Savoye M, Rieger V, Taksali S, Barbetta G, Sherwin RS, Caprio S. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. N Engl J Med. 2002;14;346:802-810.
Kissebah AH, Krakower GR. Regional adiposity and morbidity. Physiol Rev 1994;74:761-811.
Freedman DS, Serdula MK, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Relation of circumferences and skinfold thickness to lipid and insulin concentrations in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:308-317.