2014, Number 2
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ABSTRACTThe electroencephalogram (EEG) remains the technique of choice to characterize brain dysfunction that accompanies epilepsies and epileptic encephalopathies. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and update of the most frequent ictal and interictal EEG patterns in four epileptic encephalopathies of childhood. The most frequent severe epileptic encephalopathies of childhood are the early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (Ohtahara syndrome), West syndrome, late infantile epileptic encephalopathy, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Among interictal EEG abnormalities more frequent in these encephalopathies are included the pattern of “burst-suppression”, hypsarrhythmia, epileptic discharges of single spikes, slow spike-wave complexes, multiple spike complex, polyspikes-wave complexes, and generalized rapid paroxysmal activity; while the voltage attenuation with or without low-voltage fast activity is the most reported ictal pattern. The knowledge of these EEG patterns, in addition to the regular review of changes in brain electrical activity in patients with these encephalopathies, represents an important contribution to achieve a correct diagnosis and better therapeutic management.
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