2014, Number 4
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ABSTRACTContinuous population aging, coupled with increased prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, particularly diabetes mellitus and hypertension as major causes of impaired renal function, has led to the introduction of new and more powerful drugs for the prevention and treatment of these conditions over the years. This entails an updated knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these drugs to prevent possible toxic effects, which involves a preliminary assessment of the renal function prior to the introduction of any potentially nephrotoxic substance. The ultimate expression of this nephrotoxicity is hospital-acquired or community-acquired acute renal failure caused by a therapeutic error due to drug misuse in elderly patients with multiple risk factors or pre-existing impaired renal function. The aim of this literature review is to provide health professionals with an abridged and updated vision of the pathophysiological mechanisms related to nephrotoxicity and in turn provide the necessary tools for dose adjustment according to the patient’s renal function.
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