2016, Number 3
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ABSTRACTDue to the significant development of sport in recent decades, and the incorporation of more and younger athletes to high-performance sport, different questions arise about the changes that occur in the shoulder of the thrower athlete. During the throwing, the glenohumeral joint experiences the development of important forces causing compensatory mechanisms of soft tissue and bone changes, in many cases prensent clinically in increasing external rotation and decreased internal rotation of the dominant arm against nondominant, that is what we know as GIRD (glenohumeral internal rotation defficit). Several studies relate the GIRD with the presentation of shoulder and elbow injuries in the throwers, especially in baseball. The established treatment for pitchers who have a decreased internal rotation as an adaptive mechanism in their dominant arm are stretching exercises for posterior shoulder capsule known as «sleeper stretcher». The importance of early detection of GIRD in the dominant arm of the pitcher and the indication of a program of stretching of the posterior capsule added to the practice helps prevent anatomical changes in the glenohumeral joint in youth athletes as well as in the treatment of pain and repetitive microtrauma injuries in the shoulder of skeletally mature athletes.
Shanley E, Thigpen CA, Clark JC, Wyland DJ, Hawkins RJ, Noonan TJ, et al. Changes in passive range of motion and development of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) in the professional pitching shoulder between spring training in two consecutive years. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012; 21 (11): 1605-1612.