2017, Number 1
Giant lumbosacral schwannoma
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ABSTRACTBackground: The spinal schwannoma is a tumor of the nerve sheaths that presents in intradural and extramedular areas. It comes from the embryonic cells of the neural crest of the peripheral nerves. They represent 25-30% of tumors and it affects adults aging 40 and 60. It is rare in children and there is no sex difference.
Objective: Present a case of giant lumbosacral schwannoma that was diagnosed at Manuel Ascunce Domenech University Hospital in Camagüey. This patient received surgical treatment at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery.
Case report: 38-year-old white male patient with a history of lumbosacral pain of two years of evolution came to consultation. His pain intensified in the last 8 months, radiating to lower limbs with paresthesias and loss of muscle strength. In addition, he had constipation, urinary incontinence, difficulty at walking, and delayed ejaculation. Computed tomography revealed an extensive intrarectal tumor process with anterior, posterior and lateral longitudinal growth from the fourth lumbar vertebra to the third sacrum (L4-S3), which produced lysis of the posterior portion of the vertebral bodies, pedicles, and S3 anterior border. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large area slightly hypointense in T1 and hyperintense in T2, which occupied the vertebral canal from L3 to the fourth sacral vertebra (S4). The biopsy reported a tumor-like fusocellular cells arranged in compact fascicles, other more lax areas of clear cytoplasm cells, abundant blood vessels, compatible with a schwannoma, benign tumor of the nerve sheaths. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery with favorable evolution after extensive resection and instrumentation.
Conclusions: Lumbosacral schwannoma is a challenge for surgeons. Sacral involvement is rare. Histopathologic diagnosis is fundamental and surgery is the treatment of choice, in which complete resection of the tumor is very difficult at times due to the possibility of injuring important nerve structures. Radiological follow-up is recommended for the risk of relapses.
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