2018, Number 1
NOD2: Activation During Bacterial and Viral Infections, Polymorphisms and Potential as Therapeutic Target
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ABSTRACTNucleotide-binding domain (NBD) leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptors or NLRs are a family of receptors that detect both, molecules associated to pathogens and alarmins, and are located mainly in the cytoplasm. NOD2 belongs to the NLR family and is a dynamic receptor capable of interacting with multiple proteins and modulate immune responses in a stimuli-dependent manner. The experimental evidence shows that interaction between NOD2 structural domains and the effector proteins shape the overall response against bacterial or viral infections. Other reports have focused on the importance of NOD2 not only in infection but also in maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, not only protein interactions relate to function but also certain polymorphisms in the gene that encodes NOD2 have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease. Here, we review the importance and general characteristics of NOD2, discussing its participation in infections caused by bacteria and viruses as well as its interaction with other pathogen recognition receptors or effectors to induce antibacterial and antiviral responses. Finally, the role of NOD2 in chronic inflammatory conditions and its potential to be targeted therapeutically are examined.
Jaskula E, Lange A, Kyrcz-Krzemien S, Markiewicz M, Dzierzak-Mietla M, Jedrzejczak WW, et al. NOD2/CARD15 single nucleotide polymorphism 13 (3020insC) is associated with risk of sepsis and single nucleotide polymorphism 8 (2104C>T) with herpes viruses reactivation in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014;20:409-14.