2017, Number 4
Revista Cubana de Educación Médica Superior 2017; 31 (4)
Fernández OMÁ, Ortiz MA, Ponce RER, Fajardo OG, Jiménez GI, Mazón RJJ
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ABSTRACTIntroduction: Academic failure is one of the main school manifestations, usually associated with factors of personal, economic, social, cultural, educational or institutional origin. In other words, Academic failure must be analyzed in a diverse and varied context to identify its causes and effects.
Objectives: To identify associated factors and predict failure in students of the medical major in 2014.
Methods: Exploratory, cross-sectional, retrospective, comparative study. A universe of 388 students in social service was analyzed in January 2014. Two study groups were formed: group 1 (students who did not fail any subjects during the course) and group 2 (students who failed subjects during the course). A questionnaire was elaborated and validated, containing 58 items related to: sociodemographic and educational factors, student satisfaction and social service performance. 21 of these items were chosen as they could be associated with academic failure. A multivariate analysis was performed, using the discriminant analysis technique.
Results: The multivariate analysis reported that only seven were significant discriminants associated with academic failure, arranged by importance are: age, being chosen for the residence, family income, sex, retake of academic years in primary or secondary levels, years to enter the major and the type of activity carried out during the social service.
Conclusions: The prediction that a student may fail or may not fail subjects in the medical major depends on the synergy between the seven characteristics that were mentioned; the variables should not be isolated to consider them predictive by themselves.