2018, Number 1
Revista Cubana de Obstetricia y Ginecología 2018; 44 (1)
Influence of the body mass index and maternal gestational weight gain in maternal-fetal perinatal outcomes
de la Plata DM, Pantoja GM, Frías SZ, Rojo NS
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ABSTRACTIntroduction: Excessive body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are risk factors for the development of perinatal complications.
Objectives: Determine the association between the pregestational BMI and GWG and maternal-fetal perinatal complications and adverse effects.
Methods: A prospective observational cohort study of 500 controlled pregnant women was conducted at Virgen Macarena University Hospital from Seville during 2012 first trimester. Patients have been categorized according to their pregestational BMI and GWG. Analysis of association between variables has been performed through Chi-Square Test (statistical significance: p< 0.05).
Results: Out of 500 pregnant women, 137 (28 %) were overweight and 79 (16.1 %) were obese. Regarding GWG, 216 (44.1 %) had higher GWG than recommended. 37.7 % pregnant women, who developed pathology, presented low or normal weight at the beginning of pregnancy, whereas 62.3 % of cases were overweight (34.4 %) or obese (27.9 %) (p= 0.001). Gestational hypertension (3.4 %) and gestational diabetes (1.4 %) were the most frequent pathologies. The group of pregnant women with excessive GWG had a higher pregnancy induction rate (p= 0.027), newborns with higher weight and higher number of admissions in neonatal ICU.
Conclusions: A high pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG in pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for both, the mother and the neonate.