2019, Number 2
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2019; 57 (2)
González-Zenteno SG, Vargas-Ruiz ÁG
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ABSTRACTBackground: Erythrocyte isoimmunization or alloimmunization is a late complication of transfusion, in which antibodies against erythrocyte antigens other than the ABO system are developed. Its prevalence is variable, groups of patients with low prevalence (2%) and others of high risk with more than 50% have been described. These antibodies can have serious clinical repercussions in transfused patients.
Objective: To know the prevalence of erythrocyte isoimmunization, the risk factors for its development and the types of antibodies developed in the user population of two hospitals in Mexico.
Methods: Retrospective study. The database of the Blood Bank and the Transfusion Service of two hospitals was analyzed for the search of transfused patients who developed isoantibodies from 2012 to 2016, analyzing their background to determine the risk factors, prevalence and type of antibodies.
Results: An isoimmunization prevalence of 0.97% was found in 5 years; the main antibodies found were: anti-E, anti-K, anti-C, anti-Dia, anti-c, anti-D and anti-Fya. The associated risk factors for the development of isoimmunization were: transfusion history, pregnancy and female sex, as a finding it was found that group O is a protective factor.
Conclusions: Erythrocyte alloimmunization in the population studied corresponded to a low prevalence. The main antibodies found were against Rh, Kell and Diego system antigens, with a different distribution than published in other international series. No previous report was found about the finding on group O as a protective factor for isoimmunization.