Entrar/Registro  
HOME SPANISH
 
Revista Cubana de Medicina
   
MENU

Contents by Year, Volume and Issue

Table of Contents

General Information

Instructions for Authors

Message to Editor

Editorial Board






>Journals >Revista Cubana de Medicina >Year 2013, Issue 2


Noda AAL, Vidal TLA, Pérez LJE, Cañete VR
Clinical interpretation of the CD4 positive T lymphocytes count in HIV infection
Rev cubana med 2013; 52 (2)

Language: Español
References: 42
Page: 118-127
PDF: 53.66 Kb.


Full text




ABSTRACT

The main consequence of persistent replication of the human immunodeficiency virus is the gradual reduction of CD4 positive T lymphocytes, what eventually leads to the loss of immunological competence. The CD4 positive T lymphocytes count by means of flow cytometry is considered an essential part in medical attention and a parameter to identify the disease as well as a useful guide to clinical treatment. Numerous factors, besides the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, can influence in the CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The changes in this parameter, generated by these factors, do not indicate real modifications in the immunological status of the patient and should be interpreted with caution.


Key words: HIV, AIDS, treatment, antiretroviral, CD4.


REFERENCIAS

  1. Vyas JM, Van der Veen AG, Ploegh HL. The known unknowns of antigen processing and presentation. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2008;8:607-18.

  2. McCoy JP. Basic principles of flow cytometry. Hematol Oncol Clin N Am. 2002;16:229-43.

  3. Mellors JW, Margolick JB, Phair JP, Rinaldo CR, Detels R, Jacobson LP, et al. Prognostic value of HIV-1 RNA, CD4 cell count, and CD4 Cell count slope for progression to AIDS and death in untreated HIV-1 infection. JAMA. 2007;297:2349-50.

  4. Brenchley JM, Price DA, Douek DC. HIV disease: fallout from a mucosal catastrophe? Nat Immunol. 2006;7:235-9.

  5. Derdeyn CA, Silvestri G. Viral and host factors in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Cur Op Immunol. 2005;17:366-73.

  6. Wolbers M, Babiker A, Sabin C, Young J, Dorrucci M, Chane G. Pretreatment CD4 cell slope and progression to AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy—the CASCADE collaboration: a collaboration of 23 cohort studies. PLoS Med. 2010;7(2):e1000-239.

  7. Hughes MD, Stein DS, Gundacker HM, Valentine FT, Phair JP, Volberding PA. Within-subject variation in CD4 lymphocyte count in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection: implications for patient monitoring. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:28-36.

  8. Grossman Z, Meier-Schellersheim M, Paul WE, Picker L. Pathogenesis of HIV infection: what the virus spares is as important as what it destroys. Nat Med. 2006;12:289-95.

  9. Gougeon ML. To kill or be killed: How HIV exhausts the immune system. Cell Death Differ. 2005;12(1):845-54.

  10. Dion ML, Poulin JF, Bordi R, Sylvestre M, Corsini R, Kettaf N, et al. HIV infection rapidly induces and maintains a substantial suppression of thymocyte proliferation. Immunity. 2004;21:757-68.

  11. Moses A, Nelson J, Bagby Jr GC. The influence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 on hematopoiesis. Blood. 1998;91:1479-95.

  12. McCune JM. The dynamics of CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV disease. Nature. 2001;410:974-9.

  13. Nies-Kraske E, Schacker TW, Condoluci D, Orenstein J, Brenchley J, Fox C, et al. Evaluation of the pathogenesis of decreasing CD4(+) T cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving successfully suppressive antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1648-56.

  14. Estes J, Baker JV, Brenchley JM, Khoruts A, Barthold JL, Bantle A, et al. Collagen deposition limits immune reconstitution in the gut. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:456-64.

  15. Sax PE, Boswell SL, White-Guthro M, Hirsch MS. Potential clinical implications of interlaboratory variability in CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:112-5.

  16. Letvin NL. Immunology of HIV Infection. En: Paul WE, editors. Fundamental Immunology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. p. 1205-32.

  17. Laurence J. T-cell subsets in health, infectious disease, and idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:55-62.

  18. DHHS Panel on A Working Group of the Office of AIDS. Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Research Advisory Council. January, 2011.

  19. van Rood Y, Goulmy E, Blokland E, Pool J, van Rood J, van Houwelingen H. Month-related variability in immunological test results; implications for immunological follow-up studies. Clin Exp Immunol. 1991;86:349.

  20. Schechter M, Harrison LH, Halsey NA, Trade G, Santino M, Moulton LH, et al. Coinfection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and HIV in Brazil. Impact on markers of HIV disease progression. JAMA. 1994;271:353-7.

  21. Bloemena E, Weinreich S, Schellekens PT. The influence of prednisolone on the recirculation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in vivo. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990;80:460.

  22. Pol S, Artru P, Thépot V, Berthelot P, Nalpas B. Improvement of the CD4 cell count after alcohol withdrawal in HIV-positive alcoholic patients. AIDS. 1996;10:1293-4.

  23. Towers CV, Rumney PJ, Ghamsary MG. Longitudinal study of CD4+ cell counts in HIV-negative pregnant patients. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:1091.

  24. Goicoechea M, Haubrich R. CD4 lymphocyte percentage versus absolute CD4 lymphocyte count in predicting HIV disease progression: an old debate revisited. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:945.

  25. Moore DM, Hogg RS, Yip B, Craib K, Wood E, Montaner JS, et al. CD4 percentage is an independent predictor of survival in patients starting antiretroviral therapy with absolute CD4 cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/microL. HIV Med. 2006;7:383-8.

  26. Gebo KA, Gallant JE, Keruly JC, Moore RD. Absolute CD4 vs. CD4 percentage for predicting the risk of opportunistic illness in HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;36:1028-33.

  27. Hulgan T, Raffanti S, Kheshti A, Blackwell RB, Rebeiro PF, Barkanic G, et al. CD4 lymphocyte percentage predicts disease progression in HIV-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy with CD4 lymphocyte counts > 350 lymphocytes/mm3. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:950-7.

  28. Hulgan T, Shepherd BE, Raffanti SP, Fusco JS, Beckerman R, Barkanic G, et al. Absolute count and percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes are independent predictors of disease progression in HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:425-31.

  29. Bongiovanni M, Gori A, Lepri AC, Antinori A, de Luca A, Pagano G. Is the CD4 cell percentage a better marker of immunosuppression than the absolute CD4 cell count in HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis? Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep.;45(5):650-3.

  30. McGovern BH, Golan Y, Lopez M, Pratt D, Lawton A, Moore G, et al. The impact of cirrhosis on CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-seronegative patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:43-7.

  31. Maartens G, Boulle A. CD4 T-cell responses to combination antiretroviral therapy. Lancet. 2007;370:366.

  32. Malone JL, Simms TE, Gray GC, Wagner KF, Burge JR, Burke DS. Sources of variability in repeated T-helper lymphocyte counts from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: total lymphocyte count fluctuations and diurnal cycle are important. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3:144-51.

  33. Greub G, Ledergerber B, Battegay M, Grob P, Perrin L, Furrer H, et al. Clinical progression, survival, and immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus coinfection: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Lancet. 2000;356:1800-5.

  34. Bahrani A, Ramaswamy R, Oldfield EC. Effects of virologic rebound on CD4 cell counts. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:1231.

  35. Lawrence J, Mayers DL, Hullsiek KH, Collins G, Abrams DI, Reisler RB, et al. Structured treatment interruption in patients with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:837-46.

  36. Loutfy MR, Genebat M, Moore D, Raboud J, Chan K, Antoniou T, et al. A CD4+ cell count <200 cells per cubic millimeter at 2 years after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased mortality in HIV-infected individuals with viral suppression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:45-9.

  37. Moore RD, Keruly JC. CD4+ cell count 6 years after commencement of highly active antiretroviral therapy in persons with sustained virologic suppression. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:441-7.

  38. Huttner AC, Kaufmann GR, Battegay M, Weber R, Opravil M. Treatment initiation with zidovudine-containing potent antiretroviral therapy impairs CD4 cell count recovery but not clinical efficacy. AIDS. 2007 May.;21(8):939-46.

  39. Rajasekaran S, Jeyaseelan L, Raja K, Vijila S, Krithigaipriya KA, Kuralmozhi R. Increase in CD4 cell counts between 2 and 3.5 years after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and determinants of CD4 progression in India. Postgrad Med. 2009 Oct.;55(4):261-6.

  40. De Beaudrap PC, Etard JF, Diouf A, Ndiaye I, Guèye NF, Guèye PM. Modeling CD4+ cell count increase over a six-year period in HIV-1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Jun.;80(6):1047-53.

  41. Mee P, Fielding KL, Charalambous S, Churchyard GJ, Grant AD. Evaluation of the WHO criteria for antiretroviral treatment failure among adults in South Africa. AIDS. 2008;22:197-7.

  42. Stevens WS, Scott LE, Crowe SM. Quantifying HIV for monitoring antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings. J Infect Dis. 2010;201 Suppl 1:S16.






>Journals >Revista Cubana de Medicina >Year 2013, Issue 2
 

· Journal Index 
· Links 






       
Copyright 2019