Revista de Hematología

Contents by Year, Volume and Issue

Table of Contents

General Information

Instructions for Authors

Message to Editor

Editorial Board

>Journals >Revista de Hematología >Year 2013, Issue 3

Kumar-Pandey S, Kumari-Chauhan U
Essentials of zinc: Focus on sickle cell disease
Rev Hematol Mex 2013; 14 (3)

Language: Español
References: 50
Page: 145-148
PDF: 295.66 Kb.

Full text


Zinc is an important micronutrient, which plays a key role in human health, growth and development. It is a potent antioxidant that improves immunity. Deficiency of zinc is related to various disease i.e. diarrhea in children, slow growth and exposure to various infections. It also plays an important role in sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Red meat is a rich source of zinc, where as vegetables are a poor source of zinc. There are extensive studies carried out across the world and correlation is established with various diseases. The aim of this review is to account the various international and national studies and their findings in the role of zinc.

Key words: Zinc, Zinc deficiency diseases, Antioxidant.


  1. Abul HT, Abul AT, Al-Althary EA, Behbehani AE, Khadadah ME, Dashti HM. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) production by alveolar macrophages in patients with acute lung diseases: the influence of zinc supplementation. Mol Cell Biochem 1995;146:139-145. Table 1. Recommended Dietary Allowances of Zinc for infants, children, adults and Upper Levels for infants, children and adults. Age RDA Infants/Male female Pregnancy Lactation Children Upper Levels Infants/ Male Female Pregnancy Lactation Children 7 months - 3 years 3 mg - - - - 4-7 mg - - - - 4 - 8 years 5 mg - - - - 12 mg - - - - 9 - 13 years 8 mg - - - 23 mg - - - - 14 - 18 years 11 mg 9 mg 13 mg 14 mg 34 mg - - 34 mg 34 mg 19+ years 11 mg 8 mg 11 mg 12 mg - 40 mg 40 mg 40 mg 40 mg (Adapted from National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001 and Lewis MR et.al.1998)

  2. Altaf W, Perveen S, Rehman KU. Zinc supplementation in oral rehydration solutions: experimental assessment and mechanisms of action. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:26-32.

  3. Fortes C, Forastiere F, Agabiti N. The effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on immune response in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:19-26.

  4. Anderson RA, Roussel AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:212-8.

  5. Lih-Brody L, Powell Sr, Collier KP. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defenses in mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 1996;41:2078-2086.

  6. Sazawal S, Black RE, Jalla S, Mazumdar S, Sinha A, Bhan MK. Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and preschool children: A double-blind controlled trial. Pediatrics 1998;102:1-5.

  7. Shah D, Sachdev HP. Effect of gestational zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcomes: summary of observation studies and zinc supplementation trials. Br J Nutr 2001; 85: S101-8.

  8. ValleeB. L, Biochemistry, physiology and pathology of zinc. Physiol Rev 1959; 39: 443.

  9. Fernandez-Madrid F, Prasad AS, Oherleas D. Effect of zinc deficiency on nucleic acids, collagen and noncollagenous protein of the connective tissue. J Lab Clin Med 1973;82:951-961.

  10. Sandstead HH, Rinaldi RA. Impairment of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by dietary zinc deficiency in the rat. J Cell Physiol 1969; 73: 81-3.

  11. Grey PC, Dreosti IE. Deoxyribonucleic acid and protein metabolism in zinc deficient rats. J Comp Pathol 1972; 82:223-8.

  12. Terhune MW, Sandstead HH. Decreased RNA polymerase activity in mammalian zinc deficiency. Science 1972;177:68-9.

  13. Prasad AS, Schoomaker EB, Ortega J, Brewer GJ. Zinc deficiency in sickle cell disease. Clinicalchem 1975; 21:582-587.

  14. Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, Fung EB. Effect of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with sickle cell disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:300-307.

  15. Humphries L, Vivian B, Stuart M, McClain CJ. Zinc deficiency and eating disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1989;50:456-459.

  16. Sazawal S, Black RE, Bhan MK, Bhandari N, Sinha A, Jalla S. Zinc supplementation in young children with Acute diarrhea in India. N Engl J Med 1995;333:839-44.

  17. Penny ME, Brown KH, Lanata CF, Peerson JM, Marin RM, Duran A. Community-based trial of the effect of zinc supple ments with or without other micronutrients on the duration of persistent diarrhea and the prevention of subsequent morbidity. FASEB Journal 1997:A665 (abstract 3778).

  18. Nihn NX, Thissen JP, Collette L, Gerard GG, Khoi HH, Ketelslegers JM. Zinc supplementation increases growth and circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in growth-retarded Vietnamese children. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:514-9.

  19. Rosado JL, Lopez P, Munoz E, Martinez H, Allen LH. Zinc supplementation reduced morbidity, but neitherzinc nor iron supplementation affected growth or body composition of Mexican preschoolers. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:13-9.

  20. Ruel MT, Rivera JA, Santizo MC, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. Impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children. Pediatrics 1997;99:808-13.

  21. Sazawal S, Black RE, Bhan MK, Jalla S, Sinha A, Bhandari N. Efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing the incidence and prevalence of acute diarrhea- a community-based, doubleblind, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:413-8.

  22. Sazawal S, Black RE, Bhan MK. Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery among low socioeconomic children in India. J Nutr 1996;1265:443-50.

  23. Meeks Gardener JM, Witter MM, Ramdath DD. Zinc supplementation: Effects on the growth and morbidity of undernourished Jamaican children. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:34-9.

  24. Hidayat A, Achadi A, Sunoto, Soedarmo SP. The effect of zinc supplementation in children under three years of age with acute diarrhea in Indonesia. Asian Conference on Diarrhoeal Diseases 1997 (abstract).

  25. Shankar AH, Genton B, Tamja S. Zinc supplementation can reduce malaria-related morbidity inpreschool children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1997;57:A434 (abstract).

  26. Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr 2000; 130: 1344S- 1349S.

  27. Prasad AS. Recognition of zinc-deficiency syndrome. Nutrition 2001; 17(1): 67-9.

  28. Bhatnagar S, Natchu UC. Indian J Pediatr 2004;71(11):991-5

  29. Castillo-Durán C, Rodríguez A, Venegas G, Alvarez P, Icaza G. Zinc supplementation and growth of infants born small for gestational age. J Pediatr 1995; 127: 206-11.

  30. Lira PI, Ashworth A, Morris SS. Effect of zinc supplementation on the morbidity, immune function and growth of low birth weight, full term infants in northeast Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 418 S.

  31. Golden MH, Golden BE. Effect of zinc supplementation on the dietary intake, rate of weight gain and energy cost of tissues in children recovering from severe malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34: 900-8

  32. Khanum S, Alam AN, Anwar I, Akbar Ali M, Mujibur Rahaman M. Effect of zinc supplementation on the dietary intake and weight gain of Bangladeshi children recovering from protein energy malnutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988; 42: 709-14.

  33. Doherty CP, Sarkar MA, Shakur MS, Ling SC, Elton RA, Cutting WA. Zinc and rehabilitation from severe protein energy malnutrition: higher-dose regimens are associated with increased mortality. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 742-8.

  34. Brown KH, Peerson JM, Rivera J, Allen LH. Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of pre-pubertal children: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 1062-71.

  35. Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Walravens PA. Increased food intake of young children receiving a zinc supplement. Am J Dis Child 1984; 138: 270-3.

  36. Hemalatha P, Bhaskaram P, Kumar PA, Khan MM, Islam MA. Zinc Status of Breastfed and Formula-fed Infants of Different Gestational Ages. J Trop Pediatr. 1997;43:52-4.

  37. Misra PK, Srivastava KL, Chawla AC. Serum and hair zinc in Indian childhood cirrhosis. Indian Pediatr 1989; 26: 22-5.

  38. Sriniwas, Awasthi S, Kumar S, Srivastav RC. Plasma zinc levels in early infancy in north India. Indian Pediatr 2003; 40: 235-8.

  39. Agte VV, Chiplonkar SA, Tarwadi KV. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24: 334-41.

  40. Bahl L, Chaudhuri LS, Pathak RM.Study of serum zinc in neonates and their mothers in Shimla hills (Himachal Pradesh). Indian J Pediatr 1994; 61: 571-5.

  41. Singhi S, Ravishanker R, Singhi P, Nath R.Low plasma zinc and iron in pica. Indian J Pediatr 2003; 70: 139-43.

  42. Pathak P, Kapil U, Kapoor SK, Dwivedi SN, Singh R. Magnitude of zinc deficiency among nulliparous nonpregnant women in a rural community of Haryana State, India. Food Nutr Bull. 2003; 24: 368-71.

  43. Bhandari N, Bahl R, Taneja S, Strand T, Mølbak K, Ulvik RJ, Sommerfelt H, Bhan MK.Substantial reduction in severe diarrheal morbidity by daily zinc supplementation in young north Indian children. Pediatrics 2002;109: e86.

  44. Srinivas M, Gupta DK, Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vats V, Sharma JD, Mitra DK. Association between lower hair zinc levels and neural tube defects. Indian J Pediatr 2001; 68: 519-22.

  45. Rathi SS, Srinivas M, Grover JK, Mitra D, Vats V, Sharma JD. Zinc levels in women and newborns. Indian J Pediatr 1999; 66: 681-4.

  46. Pandey S, Ranjan R, Toteja GS, Rao S, Mishra RM, Pandey Sw, Saxena R. Micronutrients status along with hematological and biochemical parameters in sickle subtypes: preliminary report from India. Rev Hematol Mex 2011;12:131-137.

  47. Elson M, Haas M.D. Excerpted from Staying Healthy with Nutrition: The Complete Guide to Diet and Nutritional Medicine, Celestial Arts 2006;944.

  48. Gibson RS. Zinc nutrition in developing countries. Nutr Res Rev 1994;7:151-73.

  49. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001.

  50. Lewis MR and Kokan L. Zinc gluconate: Acute ingestion. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1998;36:99-101.

>Journals >Revista de Hematología >Year 2013, Issue 3

· Journal Index 
· Links 

Copyright 2019