2018, Number 4
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ABSTRACTThe hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a therapeutic option for patients with hematologic malignancies and other non-malignant diseases. Infections are a major cause of morbidity in transplant patients, and are associated with high mortality rates, ranging from 8% in autologous HSCT to 20% in allogeneic HSCT. Multiple factors contribute to the increased risk of infectious diseases in patients receiving a transplant, including the age, comorbidities, conditioning scheme, HLA compatibility, the use of immunosuppressive drugs and the type of HSCT. Due to the hematopoietic and immune reconstitution taking place during the transplant, these patients are at an increased risk to acquire certain infectious agents, involving bacteria, virus and fungi. Therefore, it is important for the hematologist to know the most frequent infectious diseases in transplant patients to let proper preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
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