This journal only 2018, Number 4 Rev ADM 2018; 75 (4) Sleep apnea/hypopnea and night bruxism Gutiérrez RS, García GVA, Castellanos JL Full text How to cite this article Language: Spanish References: 18 Page: 196-201 PDF size: 265.18 Kb. Key words: Apnea, hypopnea, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, sleep bruxism, micro-arousal, grinding at night. ABSTRACT The events of apnea or hypopnea during the sleep process are characterized by a decrease or obstruction of respiration inducing an organic state of hypooxygenation that in turn induces micro-arousals as a physiological reaction to protect the organism. During these events, the individual transits from a deep sleep phase to a more superficial phase. The repetition of apnea/hypopnea events causes a sleep that is nor physically neither emotionally repairing; furthermore inducing a motor hyperactivity of the masticatory muscles which increases the frequency and intensity of rhythmic masticatory movements that can eventually promote muscular, joint (TMJ), mucous and dental damage. That increase of the rhythmic masticatory movements is also observed in sleep bruxism, which leaves open the possibility of observing a summation effect with sleep apnea. For this type of conditions, polysomnography is a procedure that assesses sleep disturbances and demonstrates that micro-arousal precedes an increase autonomic changes, including muscle hyperactivity, which eventually could cause organic systemic alterations, as well episodes of clenching and dental grinding. REFERENCES Hosoya H, Kitaura H, Hashimoto T, Ito M, Kinbara M, Deguchi T et al. Relationship between sleep bruxism and sleep respiratory events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Breath. 2014; 18 (4): 837-844. Saito M, Yamaguchi T, Mikami S, Watanabe K, Gotouda A, Okada K et al. Weak association between sleep bruxism and obstructive sleep apnea. A sleep laboratory study. Sleep Breath. 2016; 20 (2): 703-709. Saito M, Yamaguchi T, Mikami S, Watanabe K, Gotouda A, Okada K et al. Temporal association between sleep apnea-hypopnea and sleep bruxism events. J Sleep Res. 2013 Nov 4. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12099. [Epub ahead of print] Lavigne GJ, Huynh N, Kato T, Okura K, Adachi K, Yao D et al. Genesis of sleep bruxism: motor and autonomic-cardiac interactions. Arch Oral Biol. 2007; 52 (4): 381-384. Klasser GD, Rei N, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism etiology: the evolution of a changing paradigm. J Can Dent Assoc. 2015; 81: f2. Bradley TD, Tkacova R, Hall MJ, Ando S, Floras JS. Augmented sympathetic neural response to simulated obstructive apnoea in human heart failure. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003; 104 (3): 231-238. Lavigne GJ, Rompré PH, Montplaisir JY. Sleep bruxism: validity of clinical research diagnostic criteria in a controlled polysomnographic study. J Dent Res. 1996; 75 (1): 546-552. Maluly M, Andersen ML, Dal-Fabbro C, Garbuio S, Bittencourt L, de Siqueira JT et al. Polysomnographic study of the prevalence of sleep bruxism in a population sample. J Dent Res. 2013; 92 (7 Suppl): 97S-103S. Sjöholm TT, Lowe AA, Miyamoto K, Fleetham JA, Ryan CF. Sleep bruxism in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Arch Oral Biol. 2000; 45 (10): 889-896. Ohayon MM, Li KK, Guilleminault C. Risk factors for sleep bruxism in the general population. Chest. 2001; 119 (1): 53-61. Ware JC, Rugh JD. Destructive bruxism: sleep stage relationship. Sleep. 1988; 11 (2): 172-181. Kato T, Rompré P, Montplaisir JY, Sessle BJ, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism: an oromotor activity secondary to micro-arousal. J Dent Res. 2001; 80 (10): 1940-1944. Phillips BA, Okeson J, Paesani D, Gilmore R. Effect of sleep position on sleep apnea and parafunctional activity. Chest. 1986; 90 (3): 424-429. Lavigne GJ, Khoury S, Abe S, Yamaguchi T, Raphael K. Bruxism physiology and pathology: an overview for clinicians. J Oral Rehabil. 2008; 35 (7): 476-494. Somers VK, Dyken ME, Clary MP, Abboud FM. Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Invest. 1995; 96 (4): 1897-904. Karakoulaki S, Tortopidis D, Andreadis D, Koidis P. Relationship between sleep bruxism and stress determined by saliva biomarkers. Int J Prosthodont. 2015; 28 (5): 467-474. Castellanos JL. Bruxismo. Nociones y conceptos. Rev ADM. 2015; 72 (2): 63-69. Engleman HM, Martin SE, Deary IJ, Douglas NJ. Effect of CPAP therapy on daytime function in patients with mild sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Thorax. 1997; 52 (2): 114-119.