Acta Pediátrica de México

Contents by Year, Volume and Issue

Table of Contents

General Information

Instructions for Authors

Message to Editor

Editorial Board

>Journals >Acta Pediátrica de México >Year 2019, Issue 1

Ballesteros-Vásquez MN, García-Gámez S, Artalejo-Ochoa E, Vargas-Tequida B, Ponce-Martínez JA, Robles-Sardin AE, Grijalva-Haro MI
Biomarker disorder of cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes in preschoolers in Northwest Mexico: an exploratory study
Acta Pediatr Mex 2019; 40 (1)

Language: Español
References: 32
Page: 1-10
PDF: 378.42 Kb.

Full text


Introduction: Childhood obesity is a health problem that has been growing in the last decades in the world and particularly in Mexico. In addition to lipid alterations, glucose and insulin are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Studies the Northwest of Mexico have focused on the evaluation of these risk factors in school-age children and have shown the presence of the metabolic syndrome. However, there is insufficient information on cardiovascular health in preschool children.
Objective: To perform an exploratory analysis of the presence of possible alterations in clinical biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes in preschoolers living in the urban and conurbated zones of Hermosillo, México.
Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out, with two study groups: children living in the urban zone (ZU) and children in the conurbation zone (ZCU). Weight, height, waist circumference, percentage of body fat and blood pressure, lipids, glucose and insulin profile were assessed.
Results: The average age of the participants was 5.0 years (n = 82), 48 from the ZCU and 34 from the ZU. Problems of malnutrition, overweight and high body fat (27% ± 0.59) coexist. No cases of obesity were observed. In the ZCU of the city there is a higher percentage of children with lipid abnormalities: elevated triglycerides (35%), low HDL-C (25%), (p ‹ 0.01), and prehypertension, whereas in the ZU there was a higher percentage of children with impaired glucose (12%) and elevated insulin levels and insulin resistance.
Conclusions: The findings of this study show the risk factors for type 2 diabetes and that cardiovascular disease are present in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years from ZU and ZCU of the Hermosillo, Mexico.

Key words: School age children, Malnutrition, Lipid, Glucose, Insulin, Risk factors, Cardiovascular diseases, Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, Mexico.


  1. Van Vliet M, Heymans MW, von Rosenstiel IA, Brandjes DPM, Beijnen JH, Diamant M. Cardiometabolic risk variables in overweight and obese children: a worldwide comparison. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:106. (https://cardiab. biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2840-10-106).

  2. Getz GS, Reardon CA. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2499-506. (http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/27/12/2499)

  3. Johannsson E, Arngrimsson SA, Thorsdottir I, Sveinsson T. Tracking of overweight from early childhood to adolescence in cohorts born 1988 and 1994: overweight in a high birth weight population. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1265- 71. (https://www.nature.com/articles/0803253)

  4. Timpka T, Angbratt M, Bolme P, Hermansson G, Häger A, Valter L. A high-precision protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for persisting obesity. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e535. (http://journals.plos.org/plosone/ article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000535).

  5. Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, Venn A, Burns TL, Sabin MA, et al. Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1876-85. ( http://www.nejm.org/doi/ full/10.1056/NEJMoa1010112#t=article) .

  6. Tamir I, Heiss G, Glueck CJ, Christensen B, Kwiterovich P, Rifkind BM. Lipid and lipoprotein distributions in white children ages 6-19 yr. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Int J Chronic Dis. 1981;34:27- 39. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/0021968181900795).

  7. Newman III WP, Freedman DS, Voors AW, Gard PD, Srinivasan SR, Cresanta JL, et al. Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:138-44. (http://www.nejm.org/ doi/full/10.1056/nejm198601163140302)

  8. Sanchez-Bayle M, Gonzalez-Requejo A, Ruiz-Jarabo C, Asensio J, Baeza J, Vila S, et al. Serum lipids and apolipoproteins in Spanish children and adolescents: a 5 year follow-up. Acta Paediatrica. 1996;85:292-4. http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1996.tb14018.x/full

  9. Velásquez E, Barón MA, Solano L, Páez M, Llovera D, Portillo Z. Perfil lipídico en preescolares venezolanos según nivel socioeconómico. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2006;56:22- 8. (http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?pid=S0004- 06222006000100004&script=sci_arttext).

  10. Acosta García E. Obesidad, tejido adiposo y resistencia a la insulina. Acta Bioquím Clín Latinoam. 2012;46:183-94. (http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext& pid=S0325-29572012000200003).

  11. Ramírez-Murillo C, Guillot-Sánchez E, Elizabeth Artalejo- Ochoa QB, Robles-Sardin AE, Ponce-Martínez JA, Caire- Juvera G, et al. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Diag nosed by Three Different Criteria in School-Aged Children from Rural and Urban Areas of Northwest Mexico. J Metab Syndr. 2015;4:2-9. (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/ Martha_Nydia_Ballesteros/publication/282980088_Prevalence_ of_Metabolic_Syndrome_Diagnosed_by_ Three_Different_Criteria_in_School-Aged_Children_ from_Rural_and_Urban_Areas_of_Northwest_Mexico/ links/56254e9f08ae4d9e5c4bb26a.pdf).

  12. Gutiérrez JP, Rivera-Dommarco J, Shamah-Levy T, Villalpando- Hernández S, Franco A C-NL, Romero-Martínez M, et al. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012. Resultados Nacionales. Cuernavaca, México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública; 2012. (http://ensanut.insp.mx/informes/ ENSANUT2012ResultadosNacionales.pdf).

  13. Jelliffe TDB, Jelliffe EFP. Community Nutritional Assessment: With Special Reference to Less Technically Developed Countries. Oxford University Press; 1989. (https:// www.popline.org/node/372046).

  14. WHO. Anthro para computadoras personales, versión 3, 2009: Software para evaluar el crecimiento y desarrollo de los niños del mundo. Ginebra, OMS 2009 (http://www. OMS.int/childgrowth/software/en/ ). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.

  15. Fernández JR, Redden DT, Pietrobelli A, Allison DB. Waist circumference percentiles in nationally representative samples of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2004;145:439-44. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0022347604005530).

  16. Ramírez-López E, Grijalva-Haro MI, Valencia ME, Ponce JA, Artalejo E. Impacto de un programa de desayunos escolares en la prevalencia de obesidad y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños sonorenses. Salud Publica Mex. 2005;47(2):126-33. (http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo. php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-36342005000200006).

  17. NHBPEP. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2005. (http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/114/ Supplement_2/555 ) .

  18. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Plasma, Without Use of the Preparative Ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:499-502. (http://clinchem.aaccjnls. org/content/18/6/499.short)

  19. Daniels SR, Greer F, Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics. 2008;122(1):198-208. (http://pediatrics.aappublications. org/content/122/1/198?viewType=Print&viewClass=Print).

  20. ADA. 2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:S13-S22. (http://care.diabetesjournals.org/ content/39/Supplement_1/S13).

  21. García-Cuartero B, García-Lacalle C, Jímenez-Lobo C, González-Vergaz A, Calvo-Rey C, Alcázar-Villar M, et al. Índice HOMA y QUICKI, insulina y péptido C en niños sanos. Puntos de corte de riesgo cardiovascular. An Pediatr (Barc.). 2007;66(5):481-90. (http://www.analesdepediatria. org/es/ndice-homa-quicki-insulina-peptido/ articulo/13102513/)

  22. Freedman D, Wang J, Thornton J, Mei Z, Sopher A, Pierson R, et al. Classification of body fatness by body mass indexfor- age categories among children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(9):805-11. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846460/).

  23. WHO. Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) Prensa: Notas descriptivas. Geneva: OMS; 2016. (http://www.who.int/ topics/cardiovascular_diseases/es/).

  24. De Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1257-64. (http://ajcn. nutrition.org/content/92/5/1257.short).

  25. Chiarelli F, Marcovecchio ML. Insulin resistance and obesity in childhood. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2008;159:S67-S74. (http:// www.eje-online.org/content/159/suppl_1/S67.short).

  26. Barker DJP. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in later life. Br. Med. Bull. 1997;53:96-108. (https://academic. oup.com/bmb/article/53/1/96/285492).

  27. Mackness B., Mackness M. (2010) Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Paraoxonase-1 in Atherosclerosis. In: Reddy S. (eds) Paraoxonases in Inflammation, Infection, and Toxicology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 660. Humana Press. (https://link.springer. com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-60761-350-3_13#citeas).

  28. Reaven P, Nader PR, Berry C, Hoy T. Cardiovascular disease insulin risk in Mexican-American and Anglo-American children and mothers. Pediatrics. 1998;101:e12-e. (http:// pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/101/4/e12.short).

  29. Kelishadi R, Asgary S, Bashardoust N, Naderi GA, Zadegan NS. Atherosclerosis risk factors in children and adolescents with or without familyhistory of premature coronary artery disease. Med Sci Monitor. 2002;8:CR425-CR9. (https://www. medscimonit.com/abstract/index/idArt/420814/act/2).

  30. Barja S, Arteaga A, Acosta A. Resistencia insulínica y otras expresiones del síndrome metabólico en niños obesos chilenos. Rev Med Chil. 2003;131(3):259- 68. (http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0034- 98872003000300003&script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt).

  31. Ayala-Mendivil A. Presencia de hígado graso no alcohólico en ninos escolares sonorenses, asociada al consumo de azúcares simples y grasa Nutrición Humana. Hermosillo, Sonora: Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C.; 2016.

  32. Zimmet P, Alberti G, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Arslanian S, et al. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: the IDF consensus. Diabetes Voice. 2007;52:29- 32. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1399- 5448.2007.00271.x/full).

>Journals >Acta Pediátrica de México >Year 2019, Issue 1

· Journal Index 
· Links 

Copyright 2019