Ginecología y Obstetricia de México

Contents by Year, Volume and Issue

Table of Contents

General Information

Instructions for Authors

Message to Editor

Editorial Board

>Journals >Ginecología y Obstetricia de México >Year 2010, Issue 03

Third revision of the National Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer (Third of three parts)
Ginecol Obstet Mex 2010; 78 (03)

Language: Español
References: 138
Page: 199-212
PDF: 396.60 Kb.

Full text


In women, breast cancer causes over one million new cases each year, of which about half occur in industrialized countries, however, is in developing countries like ours, where most deaths due to this cause. Currently, the breast cancer is the leading cause of death from malignancy in women over 25 years. The conclusions of the Third Review of the National Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer are a guide for oncologists, mastologists and the medical community in general. This review involved more than 50 physicians with national recognition of all institutions and specialties related to this disease, in order to contribute their knowledge.

Key words: breast cancer, diagnosis, treatment, clinical guidelines.



  2. Primer Consenso Nacional sobre Tratamiento del Cáncer Mamario. Rev Inst Nal Cancerol (Mex) 1995;41(3):136-145.

  3. Primera Revisión del Consenso Nacional Sobre Tratamiento del Cáncer Mamario. Revista Ginecol Obstet Mex 2002;70:349-358.

  4. Segunda revisión del Consenso Nacional sobre el diagnóstico y Tratamiento del cáncer Mamario. Rev Gamo 2006;5(Supl. 2).

  5. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-041-SSA-2-2002 para la Prevención, Diagnóstico, Tratamiento, Control y Vigilancia Epidemiológica del Cáncer de Mama, México, Secretaria de Salud 2003;pp:6-7.

  6. Primera reunión sobre tratamiento médico del cáncer Mamario. Rev Gamo 2007;6(Supl. 1).


  8. Organización Mundial de la Salud . .

  9. Centro Nacional de Equidad de Genero y Salud Reproductiva, Dirección de Cáncer en la Mujer, Secretaría de Salud.

  10. Registro Histopatológico de Neoplasias Malignas (RHNM), en el año 2003. Secretaria de Salud.


  12. Kinsinger LS, Harris R. Woolf SH, et al. Chemoprevention of breast cancer: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:59-67.

  13. Vogel VG, Costantino JP, et al.; for the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP). Effects of Tamoxifen vs Raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: The NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial. JAMA 2006;295:2727-2741.


  15. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM- 229-SSA1-2002 y NOM-041-SSA2-2002.

  16. ACR, Mammography, Quality Control Manual, Va. American Collage of Radiology, 1999.

  17. Destouet JM, Bassett LW, Yaffe MJ, et al. The ACR’s Mammography Accreditation program: ten years experience since MQSA. J Am Coil Radiol 2005;2(7):585-594.

  18. Pisano ED, Gatsonis C, Hendrick E, et al.; Digital mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) Investigators group. Diagnostic performance of digital versus film mammography for breast-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2005;353(17):1773-1783.

  19. Elmore JG, Armstrong K, Lehman CD, Fletcher SW. Screening for breast cancer. JAMA 2005;293:1245-1256.

  20. Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Brawley OW. Cancer Screening in the United States, 2008: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and cancer screening issues. CA Cancer J Clin 2008;58(3):161-179.

  21. Geller BM, Barlow WE, Ballard-Barbash R, et al. Use of the American College of Radiology BI-RADS to report on the mammographic evaluation of women with signs and symptoms of breast disease. Radiology. 2002;222(2):536-542.

  22. Orel SG, Kay N, Reynolds C, Sullivan DC. BI-RADS categorization as a predictor of malignancy. Radiology 1999;211(3):845-850.

  23. American College of Radiology. ACR BI-RADS: mammography. 4th ed. In: ACR BI-RADS Breast imaging Reporting and Data System: breast imaging atlas. Reston, Va. American College of Radiology, 2003.

  24. Mendelson EB. Breast US: Performance, Anatomy, Pitfalls, and BIRADS. Categorical Course in Diagnostic Radiology. Breast Imaging. In: Syllabus. RSNA 2005;pp:107-113.

  25. Schulz-Wendtland R, Hermann KP, Wacker T, Bautz W. Current situation and future perspectives of digital mammography. Radiologe 2008;48(4):324-334.

  26. Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Radiology 2007;244:356-378.

  27. Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al; American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Advisory Group. America Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57(2):75-89.

  28. Newstead GM. Clínical Role of Breast MR Imaging. Categorical Course in Diagnostic Radiology. Advances in Breast Imaging. In: Syllabus. RSNA. 2004;pp:279-289.

  29. Rosen EL, Eubank WB, Mankoff DA. FDG PET/CT, and breast cancer imaging. Radiographics 2007;27(Suppl. 1):S215-229.

  30. Liberman L. Centennial dissertation. Percutaneous imagingguided core breast biopsy: state of the art at the millennium. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000;174(5):1191-1199.

  31. Meyer JE, Smith DN, Lester SC, et al. Large-core leedle biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions. JAMA 1999;281(17):1638-1641.

  32. Sebag P, Tourasse C, Rouyer N, et al. Value of vacuum assisted bipsies under sonography guidance: results from a multicentric study of 650 lesions. J Radiol 2006;87(1):29-34.

  33. Crystal P, Koretz M, Shcharynsky S, et al. Accuracy of sonographically guided 14-gauge core-needle biopsy: results of 715 consecutive breast biopsies with at least two-year follow-up of benign lesions. J Clin Ultrasound 2005;33(2):47-52.

  34. Golub RM, Bennett CL, Stinson T, et al. Cost minimization study of image-guided core biopsy versus surgical excisional biopsy for women with abnormal mammograms. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(12):2430-2437.

  35. Logan-Young W, Dawson AE, Wilbur DC, et al. The costeffectiveness of fine-needle aspiration cytology and 14-gauge core needle biopsy compared with open surgical biopsy in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Cancer 1998;82(10):1867-1873.


  37. Connolly JL. Recomendations for the reporting of breast carcinoma. Pathology Case Reviews 1998;3(5):241.

  38. Prognostic factors in breast cancer. College of American Pathologists Consensus Statement 1999. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:966-978.

  39. Le Doussal V, Tubiana HM, Friedman S. et al. Prognostic value of histologic grade nuclear components of Scarff-Bloom. Richardson. An improved score modification based on a multivariable analysisof 1262 invasive ductal breast carcinomas. Cancer 1989,64;1914-1921.

  40. Goldstein. Murphy T. Intraductal carcinoma associated with invasive carcinoma of the breast. A comparison of the two lesions with implications for intraductal carcinoma classification systems. AMJ Clin PathoI 1996;312-316.

  41. Goldhirsch A, Glick JH, Gelber RD, et al. Meeting highlights: International Consensus Panel on the Treatment of Primary Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;15:3817-3827.

  42. Siamon D, Clark G, Wongs, et al. Human breast cancer, correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the Her 2 Neu oncogene Science 1987;235:177-182.

  43. Silverstein, Lagios MD, Craig PH, et al. A prognostic index for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cancer 1996;77(11):2267-2274.

  44. Consensus Conference on the Classification of Ductal Carcinoma In situ. Cancer 1997;80:1798-1802.

  45. Silverstein MJ, Groshen S. The influence of margin width on local control of ductal carcinomas in situ of the breast. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1455-1461.

  46. Badve S, AHren RP. Prediction of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast using five histological classification: a comparative study with long follow-up. Hum Pathol 1998;29:915-923.

  47. Wonk JH, Kopald KH, Morton DL. The impact of microinvasión on axilary node metastases and survival in patients with intraductal breast cancer. Arch Surg 1990;125:1298-1301.

  48. Greene PC, Page DL, Flemming ID, et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 6th edition. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002.

  49. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Galimberti V, et al. Sentinel node biopsy to avoid axillary diseccion in breast cancer with clínically negative lymphnodes. Lancet 1997;349:1984-1987.

  50. Wolff AC, et aI. American Society of Clínical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25(1):118-145.

  51. Brown R. Quality management in immunohistochemistry. In: Quality management in anatomic pathology: promoting patient safety through systems improvement and error reduction. F.P. Nakhleh RE, editor. Northfield: The College of American Pathologists, 2005;pp:93-110.

  52. Greene PC, Page DL, Flemming ID, et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 6th edition. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002.


  54. Índice pronóstico de la Universidad del Sur de California/Van Nuys. Am J Surg 2003;186:337-343.

  55. Houghton J, George WD, Cuzick J, et al. Radiotherapy and tamoxifen in women with completely excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362(9378):95-102.

  56. Allred D, Bryant J, Land S, et al. Estrogen receptor expression as a predictive marker of the effectiveness of Tamoxifen in the treatment of DCIS: findings from NSABP protocol B-24. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002;76(Suppl. 1):S36 [A30].


  58. Morton DL, Wen DR, Wong JH, et al. Technical details of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for early stage melanoma. Arch Surg 1992;127:392-399.

  59. Krag DN, Weaver DL, Alex JC, et al. Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentil lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe. Surg Oncol 1993;2:335-340.

  60. Giuliano AE, Kirgan DM, Guenther JM, et al. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer. Ann Surg 1994;220:391-401.

  61. Clarke D, Newcombe RG, Mansel RE. The learning curve in sentinel node biopsy: the ALMANAC experience. Ann Surg Oncol 2004;11:211S-215S.

  62. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, et al. A randomized comparison of sentinel node biopsy with routine axillary dissection in breast cancer. N Eng J Med 2003;349:546-553.

  63. Naik AM, Fey J, Gemignani M, et al. The risk of axillary relape alter sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer is comparable with that of axillary lymph node dissection; a follow-up study of 4008 procedures. Ann Surg 2004;240:462-468.

  64. Mansel RE, Fallowfield L, Kissin M, et al. Randomized multicenter trial of sentinel node biopsy versus standard axillary treatment in operable breast cancer: the ALMANAC Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:599-609.

  65. Krag DN. Protocol B-32: A randomized phase III clínical trial to compare sentinel node resection to to conventional axillary dissection in clínically node-negative breast cancer patients. http:www.nsabp pitt eduB-32 htm 2003; available from: .

  66. Povoski SP, Olsen JO, Young DC, et al. Prospective randomized clínical trial comparing intradermal, intraparenchymal and subareolar injection routes for sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2006.


  68. Stevens LA, McGrath MH, Druss RG, et al. The psychological impact of immediate breast reconstruction for women with early breast cancer. Plast Reconstr Surg 1984;73:619.

  69. Webster DJT, Mansel RE, Hughes LE. Immediate reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy: is it safe? Cancer 1984;53:1416.

  70. Johnson CH, van Heerden JA, Donohue JH, et al. Oncological aspects of immediate breast reconstruction following mastectomy for malignancy. Arch Surg 1989;124:819.

  71. Tran NV, Chang DW, Gupta A, et al. Comparison of immediate and delayed free TRAM flap breast reconstruction in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2001;108:78.

  72. Chang DW, Wang B, Robb GL, et al. Effect of obesity on flap and donor-site complications in free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000;105:1640.


  74. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Polychemotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomized trials. Lancet 1998;352:930-942.

  75. ESMO Minimum Clínical Recommendations for diagnosis, adjuvant treatment and follow-up of primary breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2005;16(SuppI.1):i7-9.

  76. Goldhirsch A, Glick JH, Gelber RD, et al; Panel Members. Meeting Highlights: International Expert Consensus on the rimary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2005. Ann Oncol 2005;16:1569-1583.

  77. National Comprehensive Cancer Network in Breast Cancer, 2007.

  78. Martin M, Pienkowski T, Mackey J, et al. Adjuvant Docetaxel for node-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2302-2313.

  79. Mamounas EP, Bryant J, Lembersky B, et al. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(16):3686-3696.

  80. Roché H, Fumoleau P, Spielmann M, et al. Sequential adjuvant epirubicin-based and docetaxel chemotherapy for nodepositive breast cancer patients: The FNCLCC PACS 01 Trial. J Clin OncoI 2006;24:5664-5671.

  81. Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, et al. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:976-983.

  82. Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, et al. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER-2 positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1673-1684.

  83. Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in Her-2 positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1659-1672.

  84. Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P, Bono P, et al. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;354:809-820.

  85. Chien KR. Herceptin and the heart-A molecular modifier of cardiac failure. N Engl J Med 2006;354:789-790.

  86. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 1998;351:1451-1467.

  87. Davidson NE, O’Neill AM, Vukov AM, et al. Chemoendocrine therapy for premenopausal women with axillary lymph nodepositive, steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: results from INT 0101 (E5188). J Clin Oncol 2005;23:5973-5982.

  88. Goss PE, Ingle IN, Martino S, et al. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1793-1802.

  89. Coombes R, Hall E, Gibson LJ, et al. A randomized trial of exemestane after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1081-1092.

  90. The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 Collaborative Group. A comparison of letrozole and tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2747-57.

  91. Howell A, Cuzick J, Baum M, Buzdar A and The ATAC Trialists’ Group. Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after completion of 5 years’ adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Lancet 2005;365(9453):60-62.

  92. Ellis MJ, Coop A, Singh B, et al. Letrozole is more effective neoadjuvant endocrine therapy than tamoxifen for ErbB-1- and/ or ErbB-2-positive, estrogen receptor-positive primary breast cancer: evidence from a phase iii randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3808-3816.


  94. Romestaing P, Lehingue Y, Carrie C, et al. Role of a 10 Gy boost in the conservative treatment of early breast cancer: results of a randomized clínical trial in Lyon, France. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:963-968.

  95. Antonini N, Jones H, Horiot JC, et al. Effect of age and radiation dose on local control after breast conserving treatment: EORTC Trial 22881-10882. Radiother Oncol 2007;82:265-271.

  96. Elkhuisen PH, Van de Vijver MJ, Herman J, et al. Local recurrence alter breast conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 1998;40:859-867.

  97. Vrieling C, Colette L, Fourquet A, et al. Can patient treatment and pathology related characteristics explain the high local recurrence rate after following breast conserving therapy in young patients? Eur J Cancer 2003;39:932-944.

  98. Van der Leest M, Evers L, van der Sangen MJC, et al. The safety of breast conserving therapy in breast cancer patients of 40 years and younger. Cancer 2007;109:1957-1964.

  99. Huang J, Barbera L, Brouwers M, et al. Does delay in starting treatment affect the outcomes of radiotherapy? A systematic review. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:555-563.

  100. Mikeljevic JS, Haward R, Johnston C, et al. Trends in postoperative radiotherapy delay and the effect on survival in breast cancer patients treated with conservation surgery. Br J Cancer 2004;90:1343-1348.

  101. Hughes KS, Schnaper LA, Berry D, et al. Lumpectomy with tamoxifen with or without irradiation in women 70 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Eng J Med 2004;351:971-977.

  102. Fyles A, McCready DR, Manchul LA, et al. Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women 50 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Eng J Med 2004;351:963-970.

  103. Ragaz J, Olivotto lA, Spinelli JJ, et al. Locoregional radiation therapy in patients with high-risk breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: 20 years results of the british Columbia randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:116-126.

  104. Overgaard M, Nielsen HM, Overgaard J. Is the benefit of postmastectomy irradiation limited to patients with four or more positive nodes, as recommended in international consensus reports? A subgroup analysis of the DBCG 82 B&c randomized trials. Radiother Oncol 2007;82:247-253.

  105. Stemmer SM, Rizel S, Hardan, et al. The role of irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes in high risk stage II to IlIA breast cancer patients after high-dose chemotherapy: a prospective sequential nonradomized study. J Clin OncoI 2003;21:2713-2718.

  106. Strom EA, Woodward WA, Katz A, et al. Clínical investigation: regional nodal failure patterns in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;63:1508-1513.


  108. Osborne CK. Tamoxifen in the treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1609-1618.

  109. Body JJ, Bartl R, Burckhardt P, et al. Current use of biphosphonates in oncology: International Bone and Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:3890-3899.

  110. Oshaughnessy JA, Blum J, Moiseyenko V, et al. Randomized open-label, phase II trial of oral capecitabine vs. a reference arm of intravenous CMF as first line therapy for advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2001;12:1247-1254.

  111. Seidman AD, Fornier MN, Esteva FJ, et al. Weekly trastuzumab and paclitaxel therapy for metastatic breast cancer with analysis of efficacy and by HER2 immunophenotype and gene amplification. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2587-2595.

  112. O’Shaughnessy J, Miles D, Vukelja S, et al. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in antracicline-pretreatment patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial result. J Clin OncoI 2002;20:2812-2823.

  113. Siamon DJ, Leyland B, Shak S, et al. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against Her2 for metastatic breastcancer that overexpresses Her2. N Engl J Med 2001;344:783-792.

  114. Goldstein L. The role of sequential single-agent chemotherapy in the management of advanced breast cancer, Educational Book. Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003;39:122-124.

  115. Recht A, Edge SB. Evidence-based indications for postmastectomy irradiation, Surg Clin N Am 2003;83:995-1013.

  116. Rutqvtst LE, Rose C, Cavallin-Stahl E. A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in breast cancer. Acta Oncologica 2003;42(5/6):532-545.

  117. Smith IE, Dowsett M. Aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2431-2442.

  118. Extra JM et al. Docetaxel plus herceptin vs docetaxel alone as first line treatment HER 2 positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Eur J Cancer 2004;2:125-239.

  119. Albain K, Nag S, Calderillo G, et al. Global phase III study of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel vs paclitaxel as front line therapy for metastatic breast cancer: First report of overall survival ASCO 2004;(Abst. 510).

  120. Carrick S, Parker S, Wilcken N, et al. Single agent versus combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;18(2):CD003372.

  121. Marty M, Cognetti F, Maraninchi D, et al. Randomized phase II trial of the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab combined with docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer administered as first-line treatment: the M77001 Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:4265-4274.

  122. Khan SA, Stewart AK, Morrow M. Does aggressive local therapy improve survival in metastatic breast cancer? Surgery 2002;132:620-626.

  123. Rapiti E, Verkooijen HM, Vlastos G, et al. Complete excision of primary breast tumor improves survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:2743-2749.

  124. Babiera GV, Rao R, Feng L, et al. Effect of primary tumor extirpation in breast cancer patients who present with stage IV disease and intact primary tumor. Ann Surg Oncol 2006;13:776-782.

  125. Gnerlich J, Jeffe DB, Deshpande AD, et al. Surgical removal of the primary tumor increases overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer: Analysis of the 1988-2003 SEER data. Ann Surg OncoI 2007;14:2187-2194.

  126. Blanchard DK, Shetty PB, Hilsenbeck SG, Elledge RM. Association of surgery with improved survival in stage IV breast cancer patients. Ann Surg 2008;247(5):732-738.

  127. Olson JA, Marcom PK. Benefit or bias? The role of surgery to remove the primary in patients with metastatic breast cancer Ann Surg 2008;247:739-740.


  129. Registro Histopatológico de Neoplasias Malignas 2003. Secretaría de Salud, México.

  130. Weiss JR, Moysich KB, Swede H. Epidemiology of male breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(1):20-26.

  131. Rudlowsky C, Friedrichs N, Faridi A, et al. HER2/neu gene amplification and protein expression in primary male breast cancer. Breast Can Res Treat 2004;84:215-223.

  132. Fentimanl, Fourquet A, Hortobagyi GN. Male breast cancer. Lancet 2006;367:595-604.

  133. Giordano SH, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN. Breast cancer in men. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:678-687.

  134. Guinee VF, Olsson H, Moller T, et al. The prognosis of breast cancer in males. A report of 335 cases.Cancer 1993;71:154-161.


  136. Woo JC, Yu T, Hurd TC. Breast cancer in pregnancy: a literatura review. Arch Surg 2003;138:91.

  137. Albrektsen G, Heuch I, Kvale G. The short-term and long-term effect of a pregnancy on breast cancer risk: a prospective study of 802,457 parous Norwegian women. Br J Cancer 1995;72:480.

  138. Lethaby AE, O’Neill MA, Mason BH, et al. Overall survival from breast cancer in women pregnant or lactating at or after diagnosis. Auckland Breast Cancer Study Group. Int J Cancer 1996;67:751.

  139. Nettleton J, Long J, Kuban D, et al. Breast cancer during pregnancy: quantifying the risk of treatment delay. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:414.

  140. Ahn BY, Kim HH, Moon WK, et al. Pregnancy and lactationassociated breast cancer: mammographic and sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med 2003;22:491.

  141. Collins JC, Liao S, Wile AG. Surgical management of breast masses in pregnant women. J Reprod Med 1995;40:785-788.

  142. Middleton LP, Amin M, Gwyn K, et al. Breast carcinoma in pregnant women: assessment of clínicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. Cancer 2003;98:1055.

  143. Berry DL, Theriault RL, Holmes FA, et al. Management of breast cancer during pregnancy using a standardized protocol. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:855.

  144. Kuerer HM, Gwyn K, Ames FC, Theriault RL. Conservative surgery and chemotherapy for breast carcinoma during pregnancy. Surgery 2002;131:108-110.

  145. Kal HB, Struikmans H. Radiotherapy during pregnancy: fact and fiction. Lancet Oncol 2005;6:328.

  146. Keleher A, Wendt R 3rd, Delpassand E, et al. The safety of lymphatic mapping in pregnant breast cancer patients using Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Breast J 2004;10:492.

  147. Williams SF, Schilsky RL. Antineoplastic drugs administered during pregnancy. Semin Oncol 2000;27:618.


  149. Lux MP, Fasching PA, Beckmann MW. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: review and future perspectives. J Mol Med 2006;84(1):16-28.

  150. Levy-Lahad E, Friedman E. Cancer risk among BRCA 1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Br J Cancer 2007;96:11-15.

  151. Bradbury AR, Olopade OI. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2007;8(3):255-267.

  152. Berliner JL, Fay AM; Practice Issues Subcommittee of the Nacional Society of Genetic Counselors’ Familial Cancer Risk Counseling Special Interest Group. Risk assessment and genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: recommendations of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. J Genet Couns 2007;16(3):241-260.

>Journals >Ginecología y Obstetricia de México >Year 2010, Issue 03

· Journal Index 
· Links 

Copyright 2019