2014, Number 04
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ABSTRACTBackground: 15 to 25% of patients with gestational hypertension progress to preeclampsia.
Objective: To determine the number of patients with gestational hypertension who developed preeclampsia.
Materials and methods: Observational prospective comparative and longitudinal study realized between november 2010 to december 2012. We included pregnant patients diagnosed with mild gestational hypertension who were followed during pregnancy to observe the progression to preeclampsia. We compared the clinical features of each group among those who developed and not the disease.
Results: We included a total of 146 patients, of whom 36 (25%, IC 95% 17.7-31.7%) progress to preeclampsia. In this group 3 (8%) developed mild preeclampsia and 33 (92%) severe preeclampsia, of which 8 (24%) account HELLP syndrome. The remaining 110 patients (75%), did not develop preeclampsia. From 12 (8%) patients with gestational age ‹ to 28 weeks, 7 (58%) developed preeclampsia, 46 (31%) patients between 28-33 weeks, 12 (26%) evolved into preeclampsia, 39 (27%) patients between 34-36 weeks, 11 (28%) progressed to preeclampsia and finally 49 (34%) with pregnancy › 37 weeks, 6 (12%) developed to preeclampsia. When comparing these groups we found that a lower gestational age was more frequent the progression to preeclampsia (p<0.004). The onset of gestational hypertension before 28 weeks was significantly associated with the progression of preeclampsia (OR 5.1 IC 95% 1.5-17.2).
The weight of infants and gestational age was lower in children of women who developed the disease in comparison that those who did not (p‹0.001). There were no significance differences between both groups in relation with body mass index, maternal age, parity and antecedent of preeclampsia.
Conclusions: The progression of gestational hypertension into preeclampsia appreciated in one of each four patients. The progression of gestational hypertension in preeclampsia was more common in preterm pregnancy. Most of the patients developed the severe form of the disease.
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