Ginecología y Obstetricia de México

Contents by Year, Volume and Issue

Table of Contents

General Information

Instructions for Authors

Message to Editor

Editorial Board

>Journals >Ginecología y Obstetricia de México >Year 2015, Issue 06

Ortega-González C, Aguilera-Pérez JR, Arce-Sánchez L, Barquera-Cervera S, Díaz-Polanco A, Fernández-Sánchez M, Ferreira-Hermosillo A, Martínez-Cruz N, Medina-García C, Molina-Ayala MA, Muñoz-Manrique CG, Pantoja-Millán JP, Perichart-Perera O, Pimentel-Nieto D, Reyes-Muñoz E, Reyes-Rodríguez EA, Romero-Zazueta A, Ruiz-Padilla CL, Vergara-López A, Vidrio-Velázquez M, Villagordoa-Mesa J, Zúñiga-González SA
Consensus of diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium
Ginecol Obstet Mex 2015; 83 (06)

Language: Español
References: 190
Page: 363-391
PDF: 571.57 Kb.

Full text


Background: The development of obesity is complex and multifactorial, with genetic, biological, environmental and lifestyle of each individualetiology. The different changes in metabolism of women, amongst other factors, lead to disorganization in the distribution of lipids, which gathered in large quantities within the viscera, increases cardiovascular mortality and it is a major determinant factor of the metabolic syndrome.
Objective: To homologate and to apply concepts of evidence-based clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium.
Method: The experts’ consensus was done by specialized physicians properly endocrinologists, gynecologists, surgeons, psychologists, nutrition specialists, physical activity and public health, according to their expertise and clinical judgment. The recommendations were based in diagnostic criteria aside from the level of evidence of previously established treatment guidelines, controlled clinical trials and standardized guides for women in reproductive age and climacterium with obesity.
Results: The establishment of a nutritional intervention amongst other aspects of lifestyle is the first-line in the treatment of obesity. Current pharmacological treatments offer modest results in efficiency and security in weight reduction so these must go along with real changes in lifestyle in order to obtain better results in the short and long term.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in our country, especially in women in reproductive age, compels us to pose and work in prevention strategies as well as diverse therapeutic plans favoring safe weight loss and results in the long term.

Key words: obesity, overweight, metabolic syndrome, climacterium.


  1. Linne Y, Dye L, Barkelin B, et al.Weight development over time in parous women: The SPAWN study: 15 years followup. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:1516–22.

  2. Metwally M, Ong KJ, Ledger WL, et al. Does high body mass index increase the risk of miscarriage after spontaneous and assisted conception? A meta-analysis of the evidence. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:714–26.

  3. O’Brien TE, Ray JG, Chan WS. Maternal body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia: a systematic overview. Epidemiology 2003;14:368-74.

  4. Jacobsen AF, Skjeldestad FE, Sandset PM. Ante- and postnatal risk factors of venous thrombosis: a hospitalbased case control study. J Thromb Haemost 2008;6:905-912.

  5. Oveson P, Tasmussen S, Kesmodel U. Effect of prepregnancy maternal overweight and obesity on pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:305–12.

  6. Heslehurst N, Simpson L, Ells J, et al. The impact of maternal BMI on pregnancyoutcomes with immediate short-term obstetric resource implications: a meta-analysis. Obesity 2008;9:635–83.

  7. Rankin J, Tennant PWG, Stothard KJ, et al. Maternal body mass index and congenital anomaly risk: a cohort study. Int J Obes 2010;34:1371–80.

  8. Zhang J, Bricker L, Wray S, et al. Poor uterine contractility in obese women. BJOG 2007;114:343–8.

  9. Gutiérrez JP, Rivera-Domarco J, Shamah-Levy T, et al. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012. Resultados Nacionales. Cuernavaca, México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública; 2012.

  10. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J, et al. Metabolic syndrome. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. IDF Communications. 2006, Brucelas, Bélgica. Pp.1-24.

  11. Barquera S, Campos-Nonato I, Hernández-Barrera L, et al. Prevalencia de obesidad en adultos mexicanos, ENSANUT 2012. Salud Publica Mex. 2013;55 (5 Suppl 2):S151-S160.

  12. Córdova PVH, Alemán OG, Cantú GA. Hígado graso no alcohólico: un encuadre didáctico para un problema latente (primera parte). Med Int Mex 2009;25(1):38-57.

  13. Córdova PVH. Hígado graso no alcohólico: un encuadre didáctico para un problema latente. Segunda parte. Med Int Mex 2009;25(2):129-53.

  14. Coulon S, Francque S, Colle I, et al. Evaluation of inflammatory and angiogenic factors in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Cytokine 2012;59(2):442–9.

  15. Edmison J, McCullough AJ.Pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: human data.Clin Liver Dis 2007;11:75-104.

  16. Vajro P, Lenta S, Pignata C, et al. Therapeutic options in pediatric non alcoholic fatty liver disease: current status and future directions. Ital J Pediatr 2012;38:55.

  17. Barquera S, Campos I, Hernández L, et al. Obesidad en adultos: los retos de la cuesta abajo. Encuesta Nacional en Salud y Nutrición 2012. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. México 2012.

  18. Ramsay JE, Ferrell WR, Crawford L, et al. Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of metabolic, vascular, and inflammatory pathways. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:4231–7.

  19. Misra VK, Trudeau S, Perni U. Maternal serum lipids during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of prepregnancy BMI. Obesity. 2011; 19:476–81.

  20. Sebire NJ, Jolly M, Harris JP, et al. Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: A study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1175-82.

  21. Knight M, Kurinczuk JJ, Spark P, et al. UK Obstetric Surveillance System. Extreme obesity in pregnancy in the United Kingdom. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 115:989–97.

  22. Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL; Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Institute of Medicine. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. 2009. The National Academies Press Washington D.C. Pp.71-110.

  23. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2014. Diabetes Care 2014;37(Suppl 1):S14–S80.

  24. Metzger BE, Coustan DR. Summary and recommendations of the Fourth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 1998;21(suppl 2):161-167S.

  25. Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1183–1197.

  26. Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P, et al.; Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3160–3167.

  27. Chu MC, Cosper P, Orio F, et al. Insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome and the measurements of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and ghrelin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:100-4.

  28. Norata GD, Raselli S, Grigore L, et al. Leptin: adiponectin ratio is an independent predictor of intima media thickness of the common carotid artery. Stroke 2007;38:2844-6.

  29. Behre CJ. Adiponectin, obesity and atherosclerosis. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2007;67:449-58.

  30. Benz V, Bloch M, Wardat S, et al. Sexual dimorphic regulation of body weight dynamics and adipose tissue lipolysis. Plos ONE. 2012; 7(5):e37794.

  31. Pallottini V, Bulzomi P, Galluzzo P, et al. Estrogen regulation of adipose tissue functions: involvement of estrogen receptor isoforms. Infect Disord Drug Targets 2008;8:52-60.

  32. Thoth MJ, Tchernof A, Sites CK, et al. Effect of menopausal status on body composition and abdominal fat distribution. Int J Obes. 2000; 24:226-31.

  33. Fanciulli G, Delitala A, Delitala G. Growth hormone, menopause and ageing: no definite evidence for “rejuvenation” with growth hormone. Hum Reprod Update 2009;15:341-58.

  34. Salpeter SR, Walsh JM, Ormiston TM, et al. Meta-analysis: effect of hormone-replacement therapy on components of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Diabetes Obes Metab 2006;8:538-54.

  35. O’sullivan AJ, Crampton LI, Freund J, et al. The route of estrogen replacement therapy confers divergent effects on substate oxidation and body composition in postmenopausal women. J Clin Invest 1998;102:1035-40.

  36. Ho KK, O’Sullivan AJ, Wolthers T, et al. Metabolic effects of oestrogens: impact of the route of administration. Ann Endocrinol (Paris).2003;64:170-7.

  37. Dos Reis CM, de Melo NR, Meirelles ES, et al. Body composition, visceral fat distribution and fat oxidation in postmenopausal women using oral or transdermal oestrogen. Maturitas 2003;46:59-68.

  38. Di Carlo C, Tommaselli GA, Sammartino A, et al. Serum leptin levels and body composition in postmenopausal women: effects of hormone therapy. Menopause 2004;11:466-73.

  39. Lindheim SR, Presser SC, Ditkoff EC, et al. A possible bimodal effect of estrogen on insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women and the attenuating effect of added progestin. Fertil Steril 1993;60:664/7.

  40. Lindheim SR, Duffy DM, Kojima T, et al. The route of administration influences the effect of estrogen on insulina sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril 1994;62:1176-80.

  41. Cucinelli F, Paparella P, Soranna L, et al. Differential effect of transdermal estrogen plus progestagen replacement therapy on insulin metabolismo in postmenopausal women: relación to their insulinemic secretion. Eur J Endocrinol 1999;140:215-23.

  42. Sumino H, Ichikawa S, Kasama S, et al. Different effects of oral conjugated estrogen and transdermal estradiol on arterial stiffness and vascular inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women. Atherosclerosis 2006;189:436- 42.

  43. Mueck AO, Genazzani AR, Samsioe G, et al. Low dose continuous combinations of hormonal therapy and biochemical surrogate markers form vascular tome and inflammation: transdermal versus oral application. Menopause 2007;14(6):1-7.

  44. Lewandowski KC, Komorowski J, Mikhalidis DP, et al. Effects of hormonal replacement therapy type and route of administration on plasma matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:3123-30.

  45. Sumino H, Ichikawa S, Kasama S, et al. Effect of transdermal hormonal replacement therapy on carotid arteria wall thickness and levels of vascular inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women. Hypertens Res 2005;28:579-84.

  46. Lacut K, Oger E, LeGel G, et al. Differential effects of oral and transdermal postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapies on C-reactive protein. J Thromb Haemost 2003;90:124-31.

  47. Zanger D, Yang BK, Ardans J, et al. Divergent effects of hormona therapy on serum markers of inflammation in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease on appropriate medical management. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(6):1797-802.

  48. Pasquali R, Pelusi C, Genghini S, et al. Obesity and reproductive disorders in women. Hum Reprod Update 2003;9:359-72.

  49. Rachon D, Teede H. Ovarian function and obesity. Interrelationship, impact on women´s reproductive lifespan and treatment options. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010;316:172-9.

  50. Pantasri T. Norman RJ. The effects of being overweight and obese on female reproduction: a review. Gynecol Endocrinol 2014;30:90-4.

  51. Franks S, Gilling-Smith C, Watson H, et al. Insulin action in the normal and polycustic ovary. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1999;28:361-78.

  52. Carmina E, Lobo R. Use of fasting blood to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004; 82:661–65

  53. Legro RS, Arslanian SA, Ehrmann DA, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:4565-92.

  54. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: towards a rational approach. En Dunaif A, Givens JR, Haseltine F, et al, editores. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Boston: Blackwell Scientific. 1992. p. 377-84.

  55. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long- term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004; 81:19–25.

  56. Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91:4237–45.

  57. Yildiz BO, Knochenhauer ES, Azziz R. Impact of obesity on the risk for polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:162-8.

  58. Azziz R, Woods KS, Reyna R, et al. The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2745–9.

  59. Schachter M, Raziel A, Friedler S, et al. Insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with elevated plasma homocysteine. Hum Reprod 2003;18:721-7.

  60. Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB. Inflammation and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2006;116:1793-801.

  61. Moro C, Pasarica M, Elkind-Hirsch K, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves atrial natriuretic peptide and catecholamine-mediated lipolysis in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:2579-2586.

  62. Monzillo LU, Hamdy O, Horton ES, et al. Effect of lifestyle modification on adipokine levels in obese subjects with insulin resistance. Obes Res 2003;11:1048-54.

  63. Lim SS, Norman RJ, Davies MJ, et al. The effect of obesity on polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2013;14:95-109.

  64. Boomsma CM, Eijkemans MJ, Hughes EG, et al. A metaanalysis of pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod Update 2006;12:673-83.

  65. Martin KA, Chang RJ, Ehrmann DA, et al. Evaluation and treatment of hirsutism in premenopausal women: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1105–20.

  66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). U.S. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use.2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59(RR-4):1– 86.

  67. Moran LJ, Hutchison SK, Norman RJ, et al. Lifestyle changes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;7:CD007506.

  68. Harrison CL, Lombard CB, Moran LJ, et al. Exercise therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17:171–83.

  69. Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Bush A, et al. Improvement in endocrine and ovarian function during dietary treatment of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1992; 36:105–11.

  70. Perales A, Legro RS. Ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Steroids 2013;78:767-72.

  71. Tang T, Lord JM, Norman RJ, et al. Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;1:CD003053.

  72. Roberts JM, Bodnar LM, Patrick TE, et al. The role of obesity in preeclampsia. Pregnancy Hypertens 2011;1:6–16.

  73. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ task force on hypertension in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2013;122:1122-31.

  74. NICE clinical guidelines. Hypertension in pregnancy: the management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. UK, January, 2011.

  75. Detección y diagnóstico de enfermedades hipertensivas del embarazo. Guía de Práctica Clínica 2008. Catálogo maestro de guías de práctica clínica: IMSS-058-08.

  76. Hezelgrave NL, Oteng-Ntim E. Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery: a review. J Obes 2011;2011:501939.

  77. Legro RS, Dodson WC, Gnatuk CL, et al. Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery on Female Reproductive Function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:4540–48.

  78. Moran LJ, Norman RJ. The Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Female Reproductive Function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(12):4352–4354.

  79. Teitelman M, Grotegut CA, Williams NN, et al. The impact of bariatric surgery on menstrual patterns. Obes Surg 2006;16:1457–63.

  80. Heber D, Greenway FL, Kaplan LM, et al., Endocrine Society. Endocrine and nutritional management of the post-bariatric surgery patient: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:4823–43.

  81. Sheiner E, Edri A, Balaban E, et al. Pregnancy outcome of patients who conceive during or after the first year following bariatric surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:50. e1-6.

  82. Karmon A, Sheiner E. Pregancy after bariatric surgery: a comprehesive review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2008;277:381-8.

  83. National Institutes of Health. Clinical Guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity adults. The evidence report. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. National Institutes of Health. 1998.

  84. American Dietetic Association (ADA). Adult weight management, nutrition practice guidelines. AWM: Major Recommendations 2006. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), Evidence Analysis Library. Chicago, IL. USA 2006.Diaponible: www.andeal.org, último acceso: 14 de julio de 2014.

  85. Seagle HM, Strain GW, Makris A, et al., American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109:330-46.

  86. Ramage S, Farmer A, Eccles KA, et al. Healthy strategies for successful weight loss and weight maintenance: a systematic review. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2014;39:1–20.

  87. Spahn JM, Reeves RS, Keim KS, et al. State of the Evidence Regarding Behavior Change Theories and Strategies in Nutrition Counseling to Facilitate Health and Food Behavior Change. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:879-891.

  88. American Dietetic Association. Disorders of lipid metabolism. Evidence-based nutrition practice guideline. Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association; 2011.

  89. Johansson K, Neovius M, Hemmingsson E. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low calorie diet or low calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99:14-23.

  90. Catalano PM. Management of obesity in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109(2 Pt 1):419-33.

  91. Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL; Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Institute of Medicine. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. 2009. The National Academies Press Washington D.C. Pp.241-262.

  92. Mannan M, Doi SA, Mamun AA. Association between weight during pregnancy and postpartum weight retention and obesity: a bias adjusted meta analysis. Nutr Rev. 2013;71(6):343-52.

  93. Wu L, Ma D, Walton-Moss B, et al. Effects of low-fat diet on serum lipids in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Menopause. 2014;21:89-99.

  94. Zhang YB, Chen WH, Guo JJ, et al. Soy isoflavone supplementation could reduce body weight and improve glucose metabolism in non-Asian postmenopausal women: A metaanalysis. Nutrition 2013;29:8–14.

  95. Perichart-Perera O, Balas-Nakash M, Muñoz-Manrique C, et al. A structured hypocaloric diet is more effective than behavioral therapy in reducing metabolic syndrome in Mexican postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2014;21:711-20.

  96. Recomendaciones mundiales sobre la actividad física para la salud. Ginebra: Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS); 2010. Disponible en: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/ publications/2010/9789243599977_spa.pdf. Acceso: Octubre 2013.

  97. Medina C, Janssen I, Barquera S. Association between sedentary behaviors and physical activity with obesity in Mexican adults: Results from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT). (en prensa)

  98. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2007;116:1081-93.

  99. Marwick TH, Hordern MD, Miller T, et al. Exercise training for type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact on cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2009;119:3244-62.

  100. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, et al. Physical activity/ exercise and type 2 diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2006;29(6):1433-1438.

  101. Puri N. A study of pathogenesis of Acanthosis nigricans and its clinical implications. Indian J Dermatol 2011;56:678-83.

  102. Kluczynik CE, Mariz LS, Souza LC, et al. Acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance in overweight children and adolescents. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87(4):531-7.

  103. García-Solís O, Medina-Castillo DE, de la Cruz-López J, et al. Obesidad y dermatosis: estudio prospectivo y descriptivo en la clínica de consulta externa Alfredo del Mazo Vélez del ISSEMyM Toluca. Dermatología Rev Mex. 2010;54:3-9.

  104. Plascencia-Gómez A, Vega ME, Torres M, et al. Dermatosis en pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad y su relación con la insulina. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2013;2:178-185.

  105. García-Hidalgo L, Orozco-Topete R, González Barranco J, et al. Dermatoses in 156 obese adults. Obes Res. 1999;7:299-302.

  106. Lee JM, Okumura MJ, Davis MM, et al. Prevalence and determinants of insulin resistance among U.S. adolescents: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2427-32.

  107. Yılmaz E, Kelekci KH, Kelekci S. Skin tag and acanthosis nigricans: do they have a predictive value for gestational diabetes mellitus? Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2011;119(7):419-22.

  108. Stuart CA, Gilkison CR, Smith MM, et al. Acanthosis nigricans as a risk factor for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1998;45:22-5.

  109. Rasi A, Soltani-Arabshahi R, Shahbazi N. Skin tag as a cutaneous marker for impaired carbohydrate metabolism: A case-control study. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1155-9.

  110. Bolognia J, Jorizzo J, Rapini R. Dermatology, Mosby. Segunda edición. 2008; ISBN 9781416029991.

  111. Guida B, Nino M, Perrino NR, et al. The impact of obesity on skin disease and epidermal permeability barrier status. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:191-5.

  112. Brown J, Wimpenny P, Maughan H. Skin problems in people with obesity. Nurs Stand. 2004;18:38-42.

  113. Mirmirani P, Carpenter DM. Skin Disorders Associated with Obesity in Children and Adolescents: A Population-Based Study. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014;31:183-90.

  114. Kang S. Topical tretinoin therapy for management of early striae. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;39:S90-S92.

  115. Ash K, Lord J, Zukowski M, et al. Comparison of topical therapy for striae alba (20% glycolic acid/0.05% tretinoin versus 20% glycolic acid/10% L-ascorbic acid). Dermatol Surg 1998; 24:849-856.

  116. Jones RH, Carek PJ. Management of varicose veins. Am Fam Physician. 2008;78:1289-94.

  117. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline, Obesity: Guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children and the care pathway for the management of overweight and obesity from the Department of Health.2006.

  118. Vázquez VV, López AJC. Psicología y la obesidad. Revista de Endocrinología y Nutrición 2001;9(2):91-6.

  119. Shedler J. The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Am Psychol 2010;65:98-109.

  120. LeBlanc ES, O´Connor EM, Whitlock EP, et al. Effectiveness of Primary Care-Relevant Treatments for Obesity in Adults: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 2011; 155(7):434-447.

  121. Moyer, VA. Screening for and Management of Obesity in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012;157(5):373-8.

  122. Johnston CA, Tyler C, Foreyt JP. Behavioral Management of Obesity. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2007;9:448-53.

  123. Moldovan AR, David D. Effect of obesity treatments on eating behavior: Psychosocial interventions versus surgical interventions. A systematic review. Eat Behav 2011;12:161-7.

  124. Ohsiek S, Williams M. Psychological factors influencing weight loss maintenance: An integrative literature review. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2011;23:592-601.

  125. Fega KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012;307:491-7.

  126. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Home Page, www. fda.gov

  127. Drew BS, Dixon Af, Dixon JB. Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3:817-21.

  128. Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Long-term drug treatment for obesity a systematic and clinical review. JAMA 2014; 311(1):74-86.

  129. Hauptman J, Lucas C, Boldrin MN, et al. Orlistat in the long-term treatment of obesity in primary care settings. Arch Fam Med. 2000; 9(2):160-167.

  130. Rossner S, Sjostrom L, Noack R, et al. European Orlistat Obesity Study Group. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and improved cardiovascular risk factors after 2 years treatment with orlistat for obesity. Obes Res 2000; 8(1):49-61.

  131. Bougoulia M, Triantos A, Koliakos G. Effect of weight loss with or without orlistat treatment on adipocytokines, inflammation, and oxidative markers in obese women. Hormones (Athens) 2006;5:259-69.

  132. Jayagopal V, Kilpatrick ES, Holding S, et al. Orlistat is as beneficial as metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(2):729-733.

  133. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, et al. Xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study. A randomized study of Orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(1):155-161.

  134. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-008-SSA3-2010, para el tratamiento integral del sobrepeso y la obesidad. México: Diario Oficial de la Federación; 2010.

  135. Colman E. Food and Drug Administration’s. Obesity Drug Guidance Document’s: a short history. Circulation. 2012;125:2156-2164.

  136. Hampp C, Kang EM, Borders-Hemphill V. Use of prescription antiobesity drugs in the United States. Pharmacotherapy 2013;33:1299-307.

  137. Haddock CK, Poston WS, Dill PL, et al. Ericsson M. Pharmacotherapy for obesity: a quantitative analysis of four decades of published randomized clinical trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002; 26(2):262-73.

  138. Munro JF, MacCuish AC, Wilson EM, et al. Comparison of continuous and intermittent anorectic therapy in obesity. Br Med J. 1968;1(5588):352-354.

  139. Ryan DH, Bray GA. Pharmacologic treatment options for obesity: what is old is new again. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2013;15(3):182-189.

  140. Runyan JW Jr. Observations on the use of phendimetrazine, a new anorexigenic agent, in obese diabetics. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1962; 4:270-275.

  141. Hadler AJ. Sustained-action phendimetrazine in obesity. J Clin Pharmacol J New Drugs. 1968; 8(2):113-117.

  142. Wyatt HR. Update on treatment strategies for obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:1299-1306.

  143. Connolly HM, Crary JL, McGoon MD. Valvular heart disease associated with fenfluramine-phentermine. N Engl J Med 1997; 337(9):581-588.

  144. Fidler MC, Sanchez M, Raether B. BLOSSOM Clinical Trial Group. A one-year randomized trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in obese and overweight adults: the BLOSSOM trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(10):3067-3077.

  145. Smith SR, Weissman NJ, Anderson CM. Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin for Overweight and Obesity Management (BLOOM). Study Group Multicenter, placebocontrolled trial of locarserin for weight management. N Engl J Med 2010; 363(3):245-256.

  146. Eisai Inc. BELVIQ (lorcaserin hydrochloride) tablets, for oral use. Patient package insert January 4, 2013. http//:www.accessdata. fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022529lbl. pdf. Accessed June 28, 2013.

  147. O’Neil PM, Smith SR, Weissman NJ. Randomized placebocontrolled clinical trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The BLOOM-DM study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2012;20(7):14261436.

  148. Shank RP, JF Gardocki, JL Vaught, et al. Topiramate: preclinical evaluation of structurally novel anticonvulsant. Epilepsia 1994; 35:450-60.

  149. Vivus Inc. Qsymia (phentermine and topiramate extendedrelease) capsules, for oral use. Patient package insert April 16, 2013. http//:www.accessdate.fda.gov/drugsatfda_ docs/label/2013/022580s004lbl.pdf.Accessed June 28, 2013.

  150. Allison DB, Gadde KM, Garvey WT, et al. Controlled-release phentermine/topiramate in severely obese adults: a randomized controlled trial (EQUIP). Obesity (Silver Spring) 2012; 20(2):330-42.

  151. Gadde KM, Allison DB, Ryan DH. Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults (CONQUER) a randomized, placebocontrolled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2011; 377:1341-1352.

  152. Margulis AV, Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, et al. Use of topiramate in pregnancy and risk of oral clefts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 207:405.e1-7.

  153. Vivus Inc. NDA 22580: QSYMIA (phentermine and topiramate extended-release) capsules: risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS): reference ID: 3294731, April 2013. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/DrugSafety.

  154. Tran PT. Summary minutes of the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting. February 22, 2012. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/ CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/EndocrinologicandMetabolicDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/ UCM304401. pdf.Accessed July 3, 2013.

  155. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Longterm safety, tolerability and weight loss associated with Metformin in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Diabetes Care 2012;35:731-737.

  156. Bray GA, Ryan DH. Medical Therapy for the Patient With Obesity. Circulation. 2012; 125:1695-703.

  157. He L, Sabet A, Djedjos S, et al. Metformin and insulin suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis through phosphorylation of CREB binding protein. Cell. 2009; 137: 635–46.

  158. Nieuwenhuis-Ruifrok AE, Kuchenbecker WK, Hoek A, et al. Insulin sensitizing drugs for weight loss in women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese: systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2009;15:57–68.

  159. Velázquez O, Lara A, Tapia R. Metformina y Síndrome Metabólico. Manual de uso. SSA. 2002 México, D. F. www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/documentos/ DOCSAL7520.pdf

  160. Buse JB, Weyer C, Maggs DG. Amylin Replacement with Pramlintide in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A Physiological Approach to Overcome Barriers with Insulin Therapy. Clinical Diabetes 2002; 20 (3):137-144.

  161. Singh-Franco D, Perez A, Harrington C. The effect of Pramlintide acetate on glycemic control and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in obese patients without diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011;13(2):169-180.

  162. White J. Efficacy and safety of incretin based therapies: clinical trial data. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2009;49(Suppl 1):S30-S40.

  163. Monami M, Dicembrini I, Marchionni N, et al. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on body weight: meta-analysis. Exp Diabetes Res 2012;2012:672658.

  164. Rosenstock J, Klaff LJ, Schwartz S. Effects of exenatide and lifestyle modification on body weight and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with and without pre-diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010;33(6):1173-5.

  165. Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2004;292:1724-37.

  166. NIH Conference: Gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity. Consensus development conference panel. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:956-61.

  167. Chapman AE, Kiroff G, Game P, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in the treatment of obesity: A systematic literature review. Surgery 2004;135:326-51.

  168. Scopinaro N, Adami GF, Marinari GM, et al. Biliopancreatic diversion. World J Surg 1998;22:936-46.

  169. Brolin RE. Gastric bypass. Surg Clin North Am 2001;81:1077- 95.

  170. Schauer PR, Burguera B, Ikramuddin S, et al. Effect of laparoscopic Roux-en Y gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg 2003;238:467-85.

  171. Reinhold RB. Critical analysis of long term weight loss following gastric bypass. Surg Gyn Obstet. 1982;155:385- 94.

  172. Shi X, Karmali S, Sharma AM, et al. A review of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity Obes Surg 2010;20:1171-7.

  173. Gumbs AA, Gagner M, Dakin G, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. Obes Surg 2007;17:962-9.

  174. Pories WJ, Flickinger EG, Meelheim D, et al. The effectiveness of gastric bypass over gastric partition in morbid obesity: consequences of distal gastric and duodenal exclusion. Ann Surg 1982;196:389-99.

  175. Biertho L, Steffen R, Ricklin T, et al. Laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: A comparative study of 1,200 cases. J Am Coll Surg 2003;197:536–47.

  176. Druce M, Bloom SR. The regulation of appetite. Arch Dis Child 2006;91:183-7.

  177. Thaler JP, Cummings DE. Minireview: hormonal and metabolic mechanisms of diabetes remission after gastrointestinal surgery. Endocrinology 2009;150:2518–25.

  178. Rubino F, Marescaux J. Effect of duodenal-jejunal exclusion in a non-obese animal model of type 2 diabetes: a new perspective for an old disease. Ann Surg 2004;239:1-11.

  179. Bose M, Olivan B, Teixeira J, et al. Do incretins play a role in the remission of type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery: What are the evidence? Obes Surg 2009;19:217-29.

  180. Vetter ML, Cardillo S, Rickels MR, et al. Narrative review: effect of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:94-103.

  181. Thomas H, Agarawal S. Systematic review of obesity surgery mortality risk score- preoperative risk stratification in bariatric surgery Obes Surg 2012; 22: 1135–40.

  182. Byers T, Sedjo L. Does intentional weight loss reduce cancer risk? Diab Obes Metab 2011;13:1063-72.

  183. Westling A, Bjurling K, Öhrvall M, et al. Silicone-adjustable gastric banding: disappointing results. Obes Surg 1998;8:467-74.

  184. Campanile FC, Boru CE, Rizzello M, et al. Acute complications after laparoscopic bariatric procedures: update for the general surgeon. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2013;398:669–86.

  185. Arias E, Martinez PR, Ka Ming Li V, et al. Mid-term Followup after Sleeve Gastrectomy as a Final Approach for Morbid Obesity. Obes Surg 2009;19:544-8.

  186. Marceau P, Hould FS, Lebel S, et al. Malabsorptive obesity surgery. Surg Clin North Am 2001;81:1113-27.

  187. Schauer PR, Ikramuddin S. Laparoscopic surgery for morbid obesity. Surg Clin North Am 2001;81:1145-79.

  188. Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Wlliamson DF, et al. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. JAMA. 2005; 293:1861-1867.

  189. de S Santos Machado V, Valadares AL, Costa-Paiva LH, et al. Aging, obesity, and multimorbidity in women 50 years or older: a population-based study. Menopause. 2013: 20(8):818-24.

  190. American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommitee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2012 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012; 125:e2-e220

>Journals >Ginecología y Obstetricia de México >Year 2015, Issue 06

· Journal Index 
· Links 

Copyright 2019