Table 2: Summary of the mechanism of action for the most efficient commercially available antihypertensive drugs.


Mechanism of action

Final effects


Decrease blood volume through sodium and water excretion.

— Decrease in cardiac output and diminishing ventricular preload via Frank–Starling’s mechanism.

— Improvement on systemic vascular resistance.


Blocking the sympathetic system from the cardiovascular system.

— Decreasing heart rate, cardiac contractility, and stroke volume.

— Useful in managing “hyperdynamic syndromes”, characterized by an increase in the cerebral RAAS.

— Decrease sympathetic stimulation that promote catecholamines cascade.

Non -


calcium channel blockers

Decreasing cardiac output through dropping heart rate and myocardial contractility

— Highly cardio selective pharmaco- therapeutic action.


calcium channel blockers


— More selective for the systemic vasculature

— Promotes a reduction in systemic vascular resistance.