Entrar/Registro  
INICIO ENGLISH
 
Veterinaria México
   
MENÚ

Contenido por año, Vol. y Num.

Índice de este artículo

Información General

Instrucciones para Autores

Mensajes al Editor

Directorio






>Revistas >Veterinaria México >Año 2001, No. 2


Álvarez RL, Zarco QLA
Los fenómenos de bioestimulación sexual en ovejas y cabras
Vet Mex 2001; 32 (2)

Idioma: Español/Inglés
Referencias bibliográficas: 106
Paginas: 117-129
Archivo PDF: 127.01 Kb.

[Texto completo - PDF]

RESUMEN

La introducción del macho y hembras en estro a grupos de ovejas y cabras anéstricas, provoca una respuesta ovulatoria sincronizada en los primeros tres a cinco días siguientes (efectos macho y hembra). La señal del macho es principalmente feromonal y desencadena un incremento en la frecuencia y amplitud de los pulsos de la hormona luteinizante (LH). El porcentaje de hembras ovulando en respuesta al olor del macho es menor que cuando existe contacto físico total con el semental, esto último indica que otros sentidos están involucrados en la mediación del fenómeno pero ninguno es indispensable. La poca evidencia existente, parece indicar que el mecanismo que desencadena el efecto hembra es el mismo. En un porcentaje variable de hembras, la primera ovulación inducida es silenciosa y es seguida por una fase lútea corta. La fase lútea corta se sigue de un segundo pico de LH y la ovulación inducida origina un cuerpo lúteo de características normales. La profundidad del anestro y la actividad sexual del macho afectan la respuesta. Cuando el anestro es profundo y los machos manifiestan poca actividad sexual el porcentaje de ovulaciones silenciosas y de ciclos cortos se incrementa. En el efecto hembra, la profundidad del anestro reduce también la respuesta. En la presente revisión se discuten todos los sentidos y los factores que probablemente están involucrados en la respuesta a los efectos macho y hembra.


Palabras clave: BIOESTIMULACIÓN SEXUAL, EFECTO MACHO, EFECTO HEMBRA, FEROMONAS, OVEJAS, CABRAS.


REFERENCIAS

  1. 1. Lindsay DR. Reproduction in the sheep and the goat. In: Cupps TP, editor. Reproduction in domestic animals. San Diego (Ca): Academic Press Inc., 1991.

  2. 2. Legan JS, Karcsh JF. Neuroendocrine regulation of the estrous cycle and seasonal breeding in the ewe. Biol Reprod 1979;20:74-85.

  3. 3. Chemineau P, Delgadillo JA. Neuroendocrinología de la reproducción en el caprino. Memorias del VII Congreso Nacional de Caprinocultura; 1990 diciembre 5-8; Culiacán (Sin) México. México (DF): Asociación Mexicana de Zootecnistas y Técnicos en Caprinocultura, A.C., 1990:1-10.

  4. 4. Martin GB, Oldham CM, Cognié Y, Pearce DT. The physiological response of anovulatory ewes to the introduction of rams - a review. Livest Prod Sci 1986;15:219-247.

  5. 5. Chemineau P. Possibilities for using bucks to stimulate ovarian and oestrus cycles in anovulatory goats - a review. Livest Prod Sci 1987;17:135-147.

  6. 6. Zarco QL, Rodríguez EF, Angulo MRB, Valencia MJ. Female to female stimulation of ovarian activity in the ewe. Anim Reprod Sci 1995;39:251-258.

  7. 7. Álvarez RL, Ducoing WAE, Zarco QL, Trujillo GAM. Conducta estral, concentraciones de LH y función lútea en cabras en anestro estacional inducidas a ciclar mediante el contacto con cabras en estro. Vet Méx 1999;30:25-31.

  8. 8. Ramírez BA, Álvarez RL, Ducoing WA, Trujillo GA, Zarco QL. Inducción de actividad ovárica en cabras mediante diferentes grados de contacto con hembras inducidas hormonalmente. Memorias de la XIV Reunión Nacional de Caprinocultura; 1999 septiembre 6-8; Montecillo (Estado de México) México. México (DF): Colegio de Postgraduados, 1999:119-124.

  9. 9. Underwood EJ, Shier FL, Davenport N. Studies in sheep husbandry in Western Australia. V. The breeding season of Merino crossbred and British breed ewes in the agricultural districts. J Dep Agric West Austr 1944;11:135-143.

  10. 10. Signoret JP. Effet de la prèsence du mâle sur les mècanismes de reproduction chez la femelle des mammifères. Repr Nutr Dèv 1980;20:457-468.

  11. 11. Martínez RRD, Cruz LC, Rubio GI, Zarco QLA. Influencia del carnero sobre la ocurrencia de estros en la oveja Pelibuey. Vet Méx 1998;29:111-115.

  12. 12. Shelton M. The influence of the presence of the male on initiation of oestrus cycling and ovulation in Angora does. J Anim Sci 1960;19:368-375.

  13. 13. Chemineau P. Effect on oestrus and ovulation of exposing Creole goats to the male at three times of the year. J Reprod Fert 1983;67:65-72.

  14. 14. Chemineau P, Levy F, Thimonier J. Effects of anosmia on LH secretion, ovulation and oestrous behaviour induced by males in the anovular Creole goat. Anim Reprod Sci 1986;10:125-132.

  15. 15. Chemineau P, Normant E, Ravault JP, Thimonier J. Induction and persistence of pituitary and ovarian activity in the out-of-season lactating dairy goat after a treatment combining a skeleton photoperiod, melatonin and the male effect. J Reprod Fert 1986;78:497-504.

  16. 16. Walkden-Brown SW, Restall BJ, Henniawati. The male effect in the Australian Cashmere goat. 1. Ovarian and behavioural response of seasonally anovulatory does following the introduction of bucks. Anim Reprod Sci 1993;32:41-53.

  17. 17. Walkden-Brown SW, Restall BJ, Henniawati. The male effect in the Australian Cashmere goat. 2. Role of olfactory cues from the male. Anim Reprod Sci 1993;32:55-67.

  18. 18. Walkden-Brown SW, Restall BJ, Henniawati. The male effect in the Australian Cashmere goat. 3. Enhancement with buck nutrition and use of oestrus females. Anim Reprod Sci 1993;32:69-84.

  19. 19. Amoah EA, Bryant MJ. A note on the effect of contact with male goats on occurrence of puberty in female goat kids. Anim Prod Sci 1984;38:141-144.

  20. 20. Ott RS, Nelson DR, Hixon JE. Effect of presence of the male on initiation of estrous cycle activity of goats. Theriogenology 1980;13:183-190.

  21. 21. Oldham CM, Cognié Y. Do ewes continue to cycle after teasing? Proc Austr Soc Anim Prod 1980;13:82-85.

  22. 22. Martin GB. Factors affecting the secretion of luteinizing hormone in the ewe. Biol Rev 1984;59:1-87.

  23. 23. Poindron P, Cognié Y, Gayerie F, Orgeur P, Oldham CM, Ravault JP. Changes in gonadotrophins and prolactin levels in isolated (seasonally or lactationally) anovular ewes associated with ovulation caused by the introduction of rams. Physiol Behav 1980;25:227-236.

  24. 24. Chemineau P. Effects of a progestagen on buck-induced short ovarian cycles in the Creole meat goat. Anim Reprod Sci 1985;9:87-94.

  25. 25. Fabre-Nys C, Martin GB, Cognié Y, Thièry JC. Onset of the preovulatory LH surge and oestrus in intact ewes: night is a preferred period. Theriogenology 1984;22:489-495.

  26. 26. Drickamer LC. Seasonal variation in acceleration and delay of sexual maturation in female mice by urinary chemosignals. J Reprod Fert 1984;72:55-58.

  27. 27. Wilson MA, Clark AS, Clyde V, Roy EJ. Characterization of a pineal-independent diurnal rythm in neural estrogen receptors and its possible behavioral consequences. Neuroendocrinology 1983;37:14-22.

  28. 28. Martin GB, Oldham CM, Lyndsay DR. Increased plasma LH levels in seasonally anovular Merino ewes following the introduction of rams. Anim Reprod Sci 1980;3:125-132.

  29. 29. McNatty KP, Gibb M, Dobson C, Turley DC. Evidence that changes in luteinizing hormone secretion regulate the growth of the preovulatory follicle in the ewe. J Endocrinol 1981;90:375-389.

  30. 30. Martin GB, Cognié Y, Schirar A, Nuner-Ribeiro A, Fabre-Nys C, Thièry JC. Diurnal variation in the response of anoestrous ewes to the ram effect. J Reprod Fert 1985;75:275-284.

  31. 31. Oldham CM, Pearce DT. Mechanism of the ram effect. Proc Austr Soc Reprod Biol 1983;15:72-75.

  32. 32. Oldham CM, Martin GB, Knight TW. Stimulation of seasonally anovular ewes by rams. I. Time from introduction of rams to the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation. Anim Reprod Sci 1978;1:283-290.

  33. 33. Martin GB, Oldham CM, Lyndsay DR. Effect of stress due to laparoscopy on plasma cortisol levels, the preovulatory surge of LH and ovulation in the ewe. Theriogenology 1980;16:39-44.

  34. 34. Chemley WA, Buckmaster JM, Cain MD, Cerini ME, Cumming IA, Chamley WA. The effect of prostaglandin F2 a on progesterone, oestradiol and luteinizing hormone in sheep with ovarian transplants. J Endocrinol 1972;55:253-263.

  35. 35. Atkinson S, Williamson P. Ram-induced growth of ovarian follicles and gonadotrophin inhibition in anoestrous ewes. J Reprod Fert 1985;73:185-189.

  36. 36. Chemineau P, Poulin N, Cognié Y. Sécrétion de progestérone au cours du cycle induit par l’introduction du mâle chez la chèvre Créole en anoestrus: effets de la saison. Repr Nutr Dév 1984;24(5A):557-561.

  37. 37. Ott RS, Nelson DR, Hixon JE. Effect of the male on initiation of estrous cycle of goats. Theriogenology 1980;13:183-190.

  38. 38. Oldham CM, Martin GB. Stimulation of seasonally anovular ewes by rams. II. Premature regression of ram-induced corpora lutea. Anim Reprod Sci 1978;1:291-295.

  39. 39. Pearce DT, Martin GB, Oldham CM. Corpora lutea with short life-span induced by rams in seasonally anovulatory ewes are prevented by progesterone delaying the preovulatory surge of LH. J Reprod Fert 1985;75:79-84.

  40. 40. Murtagh JJ, Gray SJ, Lindsay DR, Oldham CM, Pearce DT. The effect of the presence of ‘rams’ on the continuity of ovarian activity of maiden Merino ewes in spring. In: Lindsay DR, Pearce DT, editors. Reproduction in sheep. Camberra, Australia: Australian Academy of Science, 1984:37-38.

  41. 41. Oldham CM, Pearce DT, Gray SJ. Progesterone priming and age of ewe affect the life-span of corpora lutea induced in the seasonally anovulatory Merino ewe by the “ram effect”. J Reprod Fert 1985;75:29-33.

  42. 42. Murtagh JJ, Gray SJ, Lindsay DR, Oldham CM. The influence of the “ram effect” on 10-11 month old Merino ewes on their subsequent performance when introduced to rams again at 15 months of age. Proc Austr Soc Anim Prod 1984;15:490-493.

  43. 43. Fulkerson WJ, Adams NR, Gherardi PB. Ability of castrated male sheep treated with oestrogen or testosterone to induce and detect oestrus in ewes. Appl Anim Ethol 1981;7:57-66.

  44. 44. Signoret JP, Fulkerson WJ, Lindsay DR. Effectiveness of testosterone-treated wethers and ewes as teasers. Appl Anim Ethol 1982;9:37-45.

  45. 45. Knight TW, Lynch PR. Source of ram pheromones that stimulate ovulation in the ewe. Anim Reprod Sci 1980;3:133-136.

  46. 46. Knight TW, Lynch PR. The pheromones from the rams that stimulate ovulation in the ewe. Proc Austr Soc Anim Prod 1980;13:74-76.

  47. 47. Signoret JP, Lindsay DR. The male effect in domestic mammals: effect on LH secretion and ovulation – importance of olfactory cues. In: Breiphol W, editor. Olfaction and endocrine regulation. London (UK): IRL Press, 1982:63-70.

  48. 48. Iwata E, Wakabayashi Y, Kakuma Y, Kikusui T, Takeuchi T, Mori Y. Testosterone-dependent primer pheromone production in the sebaceous gland of male goat. Biol Reprod 2000;62:806-810.

  49. 49. Hillbrick GC, Tucker DJ. The production and short chain fatty acid composition of lipid from Cashmere goat buck fleece. Austr J Agric Res 1996;47:553-558.

  50. 50. Knight TW. Ram-induced stimulation of ovarian and oestrous activity in anoestrous ewes – a review. Proc NZ Soc Anim Prod 1983;43:7-11.

  51. 51. Knight TW, Tervit HR, Lynch PR. Effects of boar pheromones, ram’s wool and presence of bucks on ovarian activity in anovular ewes early in the breeding season. Anim Reprod Sci 1983;6:129-134.

  52. 52. Sasada H, Sugiyama T, Yamashita K, Masaki J. Identification of specific odor components in mature male goat during the breeding season. Jpn J Zootech Sci 1983;54:401-408.

  53. 53. Hillbrick GC, Tucker DJ. Effect of nutrition on lipid production and composition of cashmere buck fleece. Small Rum Res 1996;22:225-230.

  54. 54. Rodriguez-Iglesias RM, Ciccioli NH, Irazoqui H, Rodriguez BT. Importance of behavioural stimuli in ram-induced ovulation in seasonally anovular Corriedale ewes. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1991;30:323-332.

  55. 55. Perkins A, Fitzgerald JA. The behavioral component of the ram effect: the influence of ram sexual behavior on the induction of estrous in anovulatory ewes. J Anim Sci 1994;72:51-55.

  56. 56. Watson RH, Radford HM. The influence of rams on the onset of oestrus in Merino ewes in the spring. Austr J Agric Res 1960;11:65-71.

  57. 57. Shelton M. Goats: influence of various exteroceptive factors on initiation of oestrus and ovulation. Int Goat Sheep Res 1980;1:156-162.

  58. 58. Cohen-Tannoudji J, Locatelli A, Signoret JP. Non-pheromonal stimulation by the male of LH release in the anoestrous ewe. Physiol Behav 1986;36:921-924.

  59. 59. Morgan PD, Arnold GW, Lindsay DR. A note on the mating behaviour of ewes with various senses impaired. J Reprod Fert 1972;30:151-152.

  60. 60. Meredith M. Sensory processing in the main and accessory olfactory systems: comparisons and contrasts. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 1991;39(4B):601-614.

  61. 61. Scalia F, Winans SS. New perspectives on the morphology of the olfactory system: olfactory and vomeronasal pathways in mammals. In: Doty RL, editor. Mammalian olfaction, reproductive processes and behavior. London (UK): Academic Press, 1976:7-28.

  62. 62. Domañski E, Przekop F, Polkowska J. Hypothalamic centres involved in the control of gonadotrophin secretion. J Reprod Fert 1980;58:493-499.

  63. 63. Claus R, Over R, Dehenhard M. Effect of male odour on LH secretion and the induction of ovulation in seasonally anoestrous goats. Anim Reprod Sci 1990;22:27-38.

  64. 64. Schenk P, Kaulfub KH, Mandiki SNM, Bister JL, Sub R, Borell E, Prange H. Acute alterations in LH and FSH following a nasal pheromone application in seasonal anoestrous German Mutton Merinos. In: Rath D, editor. Reproduction in domestic animals, physiology, pathology, biotechnology. Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Physiology and Pathology of Reproduction. Supplement 5. München, Germany, 1998:29.

  65. 65. Pearce GP, Paterson AM. Physical contact with the boar is required for maximum stimulation of puberty in the gilt because it allows transfer of boar pheromones and not because it induces cortisol release. Anim Reprod Sci 1992;27:209-224.

  66. 66. Lindsay DR, Cognié Y, Pelletier J, Signoret JP. Influence of the presence of rams on the timing of ovulation and discharge of LH in ewes. Physiol Behav 1976;15:423-426.

  67. 67. Pearce GP, Oldham CM. Importance of non-olfactory ram stimuli in mediating ram-induced ovulation in the ewe. J Reprod Fert 1988;84:333-339.

  68. 68. Knight TW. Are rams necessary for the stimulation of anoestrus ewes with oestrus ewes? Proc NZ Soc Anim Prod 1985;45:49-50.

  69. 69. Knight TW, Gibb M. Effect of social facilitation and regulin implants on the ram’s ability to stimulate ewes. Proc Austr Soc Reprod Biol 1990;22:13 (Abstr.).

  70. 70. Pearce DT, Oldham CM. The “ram effect”, its mechanism and application to the management of sheep. In: Lindsay DR, Pearce DT, editors. Reproduction in sheep. Canberra, Australia: Australian Academy of Science, 1984:26-34.

  71. 71. Cohen-Tannoudji J, Signoret JP. Effect of short exposure to the ram on later reactivity of anoestrous ewes to the male effect. Anim Reprod Sci 1987;13:263-268.

  72. 72. Lindsay DR, Signoret JP. Influence of behaviour on reproduction. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of the Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination; 1980 June 16-20; I. Madrid, Spain: Editorial Garsi, 1980;1:83-92.

  73. 73. Khaldi G. Variation saisonières de l’activité ovarienne, du comportement d’oestrus et de la durée de l’anoestrus post-partum des femelles ovines de race Barbarine: influence du niveau alimentaire et de la prèsence du mâle. (thèse d’etat). Mention Sciences, Académie de Montpellier. Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 1984.

  74. 74. Flores JA, Véliz FG, Pérez-Villanueva JA, Martínez de la Escalera G, Chemineau P, Poindron P, Malpaux B, Delgadillo JA. Male reproductive condition is the limiting factor of efficiency in the male effect during seasonal anestrus in female goats. Biol Reprod 2000;62:1409-1414.

  75. 75. Pearce DT, Gray SJ, Oldham CM, Wilson HR. Alternative methods of synchronization of ewes in spring using the “ram effect”. 3. The use of intravaginal sponges and PMSG. Proc Austr Soc Anim Prod 1984;15:164-168.

  76. 76. Cognie Y, Gayerie F, Oldham CM, Poindron P. Increased ovulation rate at the ram-induced ovulation and commercial application. Proc Austr Soc Anim Prod 1980;13:80-82.

  77. 77. Wayne NL, Malpaux B, Karsch FJ. Social cues can play a role in timing onset of the breeding season of the ewe. J Reprod Fert 1989;87:707-713.

  78. 78. Sunderland SJ, O’Callaghan D, Boland MP, Roche JF. Social cues can alter the time of reproductive transition in ewes. J Reprod Fert 1990;5:28 (Abstr).

  79. 79. Knight TW, Hall DRH, Lynch PR. Use of rams and social facilitation to stimulate early oestrus. Annual report. New Zealand: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Agricultural Research Division, 1985:135.

  80. 80. Rosa HJD, Juniper DT, Bryant MJ. The effect of exposure to oestrous ewes on rams’ sexual behaviour, plasma testosterone concentration and ability to stimulate ovulation in seasonally anoestrous ewes. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2000;67:293-305.

  81. 81. Oldham CM. A study of seasonal and ovarian activity in Merino sheep (PhD thesis). Perth, Australia: School of Agriculture, University of Western Australia, 1980.

  82. 82. Bouillon J, Lajous A, Fourcaud P. Mise en évidence d’un effet “chévres induites”, comparable à l’ “effet bouc” chez les caprin. 7émes Journees de la Recherche Ovine et Caprine; 1982 décembre 1-2; Paris, France. Paris, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 1982:325-333.

  83. 83. Restall BJ, Restall H, Walkden-Brown SW. The induction of ovulation in anovulatory goats by oestrus females. Anim Reprod Sci 1995;40:299-303.

  84. 84. Álvarez RL. Efecto de la anosmia y la conducta social sobre la secreción de LH y ovulación de cabras anéstricas inducidas a ciclar mediante el efecto hembra (tesis de maestría). México (DF) México: Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. UNAM, 2000.

  85. 85. Greyling JPC, Van Niekerk CH. Ovulation in the Boer goat doe. Small Rumin Res 1990;3:457-464.

  86. 86. Quispe QT. Estudio sobre el uso de acetato de melengestrol para la sincronización e inducción de estros en ovejas (tesis de doctorado). México (DF) México: Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. UNAM, 1989.

  87. 87. Izard MK, Vandenberg JG. Priming pheromones from oestrous cows increase synchronization of oestrus in dairy heifers after PGF-2a injection. J Reprod Fert 1982;66:189-196.

  88. 88. Wright IA, Rhind SM, Smith AJ, Whyte TK. Female-female influences on the duration of the post-partum anoestrous period in beef cows. Anim Reprod 1994;59:49-53.

  89. 89. Hernández-Aldana NA, Angulo RB, Cervantes J, Ortiz A, Zarco L, Valencia J. Influencia de la raza y de la profundidad del anestro sobre el efecto hembra-hembra en ovejas. Memorias del X Congreso Nacional de Producción Ovina; 1999 octubre 13-15; Veracruz, México. México (DF): Asociación Mexicana de Técnicos y Especialistas en Ovinos A.C., 1999:80-84.

  90. 90. Faulkes CG, Abbot DH. Social control of reproduction in breeding and non-breeding male naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). J Reprod Fert 1991;93:427-435.

  91. 91. McClintock M. Menstrual synchrony and suppression. Nature 1971;229:244-245.

  92. 92. Pearce GP. Contact with oestrus female pigs stimulates puberty in gilts. Vet Rec 1992;130:318-323.

  93. 93. Delcroix IR, Mauget R, Signoret JP. Existence of synchronization of reproduction at the level of the social group of the European wild boar (Sus scrofa). J Reprod Fert 1990;89:613-617.

  94. 94. Kohl J. Human pheromones: mammalian olfactory, genetic, neuronal, hormonal and behavioral reciprocity, and human sexuality. Adv Human Behav Evolution, 1996:http://psych.lmu.edu/ahbe.htm

  95. 95. Fabre-Nys C, Poindron P, Signoret JP. Reproductive behaviour. In: King GJ, editor. Reproduction in domestic animals (World Animal Science B 9). Ontario, Canada: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1993.

  96. 96. Pennycuik PR. Oestrus frequency and incidence of pregnancy in mice housed singly and in groups at 4, 21 and 33oC. Austr J Biol Sci 1972;25:801-806.

  97. 97. Wagon KA, Rollins WC, Cupps PT, Carroll FD. Effects of stress factors on the oestrus cycles of beef heifers. J Anim Sci 1972;34:1003-1010.

  98. 98. Abbott DM, McNelly AS, Lunn SF, Hulme MJ, Burden FJ. Inhibition of ovarian function in subordinate female Marmoset monkeys. J Reprod Fert 1981;63:335-345.

  99. 99. Clutton-Brock TH, Albon SD, Guinness FE. Great expectations: dominance, breeding success and offspring sex ratios in red deer. Anim Behav 1986;34:460-471.

  100. 100. Ladewigh J. Endocrine aspects of stress: evaluation of stress reactions in farm animals. In: Wiepkama PR, Adrichen PWM, editors. Biology of stress in farm animals: an integrative approach. The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987:13-25.

  101. 101. Laming GE, Moseley S, McNeilly AS. Prolactin release in the sheep. J Reprod Fert 1975;40:151-168.

  102. 102. Liptrap RM, Cummings E. Steroid concentrations in follicular fluid of sows treated with dexamethasone. Anim Reprod Sci 1991;26:303-310.

  103. 103. Liptrap RM, Viveiros MM. Stress and changes in follicle development in sows. Rev Bras Reprod Anim 1993;4:131-142.

  104. 104. Viveiros MM, Liptrap RM. Altered ovarian follicle function in ACTH-treated gilts. Anim Reprod Sci 1995;40:107-119.

  105. 105. Varley MA, Foxcroft GR. Endocrinology of lactating and weaned sows. J Reprod Fert 1990;40 (Suppl): 47-61.

  106. 106. Barb CR, Kraeling RR, Rampacek GB, Fonda ES, Kiser TE. Inhibition of ovulation and LH secretion in gilts after treatment with ACTH or hydrocortisone. J Reprod Fert 1982;64:85-92.



>Revistas >Veterinaria México >Año2001, No. 2
 

· Indice de Publicaciones 
· ligas de Interes 
       
Derechos Resevados 2007