Botero D, Wolfsdorf I J. Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents. Review Article. Arch Med Res 2005;36:281-290.
Fagot-Campagna A. Emergence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: epidemiological evidence. J Pediatr Edocrinol Metab 2000;13(suppl 6):1395-1401.
Blommgarden ZT. Type 2 diabetes in the young: the evolving epidemic. Diabetes Care 2004;27:998-1010.
McKnight-Menci H, Sababu S, Kelly SD. The care of Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2005;20:96-106.
Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in Children. JAMA 2001;286(12):1427-1430.
ADA. Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. Diabetes Care 2000;23(3):381-389.
Freemark M. Clinical Perspective: Pharmacologic Approaches to the Prevention of type 2 Diabetes in High Risk Pediatric Patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88(1):3-13.
Caprio S, Hyman LD, Limb C, et al. Central adiposity and its metabolic correlates in obese adolescents girls. Am J Physiol 1995;E118-E126.
Caprio S. Relationship between abdominal visceral fat and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents. Am J Hum Biolt 1999;11:259-266.
Gower BA, Nagy TR, Goran MI. Visceral fat, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in prepuberal children. Diabetes 1999;48:1515- 1521.
Goran MI, Bergman RN, Gower BA. Influence of total vs visceral fat on insulin action and secretion in African American and White children. Obesity Res 2001;9:423-431.
Arslanian S, Suprasongsin C.Insulin sensitivity, lipids and bosy composition in childhood: “is syndrome X" present? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1058-1062.
Sinha R, Fisch G. Teague, et al. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. N Engl J Med 2002;346:802-810.
Sinaiko AR, Doanhue RP, et al. Relation of weight and rate of increase in weight during childhood and adolescence to body siz, blood pressure, fasting insulin and lipids in young adults. The Minneapolis Children´s Blood Pressure study. Circulation 1999;99:1471-1476.
Srinivasan SR, Myers L, Berenson GS. Predictability of childhood adiposity and insulin for developing insulin resistance syndrome (syndrome X) in young adulthood: The Bogalusa heart study. Diabetes 2002;51:204-209.
Vanhala MJ, Vanhala PT, Keinamen-Kiukaanniemi, et al. Relative weight gain and obesity as a child predict metabolic syndrome as an adult. Int J Obes 1999;23:656-659.
Pettitt DJ, Moll PP, Knowler WC, et.al Insulinemia in children at low and high risk of NIDDM. Diabtes Care 1993;16:608-615.
McCance DR, Pettitt DJ, Hanson RL, et al. Glucose, insulin concentrations and obesity in childhood and adolescence as predictors fo NIDDM. Diabetologia 1994;37:617-623.
Innes KE, Byers TE, Marshall JA, et al Association of a woman´s own birth weight with subsequent risk for gestational diabetes. JAMA 2002;287:2534-2541.
Rich-Edwards JW,Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Birth weight and the risk for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in adult woman. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:278-284.
Egeland GM, Skjaerven R, Irgens LM. Birth characteristics of woman who develop gestational diabetes: population study. Br Med J 2000;321:546-547.
Silverman B, Rizzo T, Cho N, Metzger B. Long term effects of the intrauterine environment. Diabetes Care 1998;21:B142- B143.
Eriksson J, Franssila-Kallunki A, Ekstrand A, et al. Early metabolic defects in person at increased risk for non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1989;321:337- 343.
Lillioja S, Mott DM, Soraul M, et al Insulin Resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: prospective studies of pima Indians. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1988-1992.
Lewis GF, Carpentier A, Adeli K, Giacca A. Disordered fat storage and mobilization in the pathogenesis on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Endocr Rev 2002;23:201-229.
Pratipanawtr T, Pratipanawatr W, Rosen C, et al. Effect of IGF-I on FA and glucoe metabolism in control and type 2 diabetics subjects. AM J Physiol 2002;282:E1360-E1368.
Mauvais-jarvis F, Kulkarni RN, Kahn CR. Knokout models are useful tools to dissect the pathophysiology and genetics of insulin resistance. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002;57:1-9.
Sinha R, Dufour S, Petersen KF, et al. Assessment of skeletal muscle triglyceride content by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in lean and obese adolescents: relationship to insulin sensitivity, total body fat and central adiposity. Diabetes 2002;51:1022-1027.
Bloomgarden ZT. Type 2 Diabetes in the young: the evolving epidemic. Diabetes Care 2004;27(4):998-1010.
Haines L, Wan KC, Lynn R, et al. Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in children in the UK. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1097- 1101.
31 Grinstein G, Muzumdar R, Aponte L, et al. Presentation and 5 year follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African-American and Caribbean-Hispanic adolescents. Horm Res 2003;60:121- 126.
Molnar D. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Int J Obes relat Metab Disord 2004;28:S70-S74.
Rami B, Schober E, Nachbauer E, Waldhor T. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is rare but nos absent in children under 15 years of age in Austria. Eur J Pediatr 2003;162:850-852.
Palmert MR, Gordon CM, Kartashov AI, et al. Screening for abnormal glucose tolerance in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1017-1023.
Beck Nielsen H, Groop LC. Metabolic and genetic charachterization of prediabetic states; sequence of events leading to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1994;94:1714-1721.
Libman IM, Pietropaolo M, Arslanian SA, et al. Changing prevalence of overweight children and adolescents at onset of insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2871-2875.
Brooks-Worrel BM, Greenbaum CJ, Palmer JP, Pihoker C. Autoimmunity to islet proteins in children diagnosed with new onset diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2222- 2227.
Alberti G, Zimmet P, Shaw J, Bloomgarden Z, Kaufman F, Silink M. Type 2 Diabetes in the young: The Evolving Epidemic. Diabetes Care 2004;27(7):1798-1810.
Stern MP. The search for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes using whole-genome scans:an epidemiologist perspective. Diabete Metab Res Rev 2002;18:106-113.
Altshuler D, Hirschorn JN, Klannemark M, et al. The common PPAR gamma Pro 121 Ala polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet 2000;26:76- 80.
Gloyn AL, Weedon MN, Owen KR, et al. Large scale association studies of variants in genes encoding the pancreatic beta cell KATP channel subunits Kir6.2 and AND SURI, confirm that the KCNJ11 E23K variant is associated with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2003;52:568-572.
Gahagan S, Silverstein J. Preventionand treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children, with special emphasis on American Indian and alska native children. Pediatrics 2007;112:e328-e347.
Lloyd CE, Dyer PH, Barnett AH. Prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in a diabetes clinic population. Diabet Med 2000;17:198-202.
Kovacs M, Obrosky DS, Goldston D, Drash A. Major depressive disorder in youth with IDDM. A controlled prospective study of course and outcome. Diabetes Care 1997;20:45-51.
Diabetes Quality Improvement Project Initial Measure Set (final version). Washington DC: National Committee on Quality Assurance, Available at: http/www.ncqa.org/dprp/dqip2.htm
National Committee on Quality Assurance. Health Plan Employer Sata and Information Set (HEDIS 1999). Available at http/www.ncqa.org/programs/hedis/newhedis.htm
Ribeiro MM, Silva AG, Santos NS, Guazzelle I, et al. Diet and exercise training restore blood pressure and vasodilatory responses during physiological maneuvers in obese children. Circulation 2005;111(15):1915-1923.
Nassis GP, Papantakou K, Skenderi K, Triandafillopoulou M, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls. Metabolism 2005;54(11):1472-1479.
Carrel AL, Clark RR, Peterson SE, Nemeth BA, et al. Improvement of fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in overweight children in a school-based exercise program: a randomized, controlled study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005;159(10):963-968.
Gahagan S, Silverstein J. Committee on Native American Child Health and Section on Endocrinology. Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children, with Special Emphasis on American Indian and Alaska Native Children. Pediatrics 2003;112(4):e328-e328.
Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Faucette N, Hovell MF. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. Am J Public Health 1997; 87(8):1328-1334.
Pangrazi RP, Beighle A, Vehige T, Vack C. Impact of Promoting Lifestyle Activity for Youth (PLAY) on children's physical activity. J Sch Health 2003;73(8):317-321.
Brage S, Wedderkopp N, Ekelund U, Franks PW, et al. Features of the metabolic syndrome are associated with objectively measured physical activity and fitness in Danish children: the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Diabetes Care 2004;27(9):2141-2148.
Ferreira I, Twisk JW, Van MW, Kemper HC, Stehouwer CD. Development of fatness, fitness, and lifestyle from adolescence to the age of 36 years: determinants of the metabolic syndrome in young adults: the Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study. Arch Intern Med 2005;165(1):42-48.
Platat C, Wagner A, Klumpp T, Schweitzer B, Simon C. Relationships of physical activity with metabolic syndrome features and low-grade inflammation in adolescents. Diabetologia 2006;49(9):2078-2085.
DuBose KD, Eisenmann JC, Donnelly JE. Aerobic fitness attenuates the metabolic syndrome score in normal-weight, at-risk-for-overweight, and overweight children. Pediatrics 2007;120(5):e1262-e1268.
Delavari A, Motaghian M, Ziaee V, Siadat ZD, Majdzadeh R,et al. Association of physical activity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: CASPIAN Study. Horm Res 2007;67(1):46-52.
Russell L, Rothman SM, Elasy TA, Vander WA, et al. Selfmanagement behaviors, Racial Disparities, and Glycemic Control Among Adolescents With Type 2 Diabetes. Pediatrics 2008;121:e912-e919.
Rocchini AP, Katch V, Schork A, et al. Insulin and blood pressure during weight loss in obese adolescents. Hypertension 1987;10:267-273.
Lauren A, Gellar MS, Ches KS, Ches TR, et al. Healthy eating practices perceptions, facilitators, and barriers among youth with diabetes the diabetes educator. 2007;33(4):671- 679.
Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Phil Zeitler. Type 2 Diabetes in children. Pediatric Diabetes 2007;8:16-27.
American Diabetes Association. Type 2 Diabetes in Children’s and Adolescents. Pediatrics 2000;105:671-680.
Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY). http://todaystudy.org