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>Revistas >Revista Mexicana de Pediatría >Año 2015, No. 5


Gasque-Góngora JJ
Revisión y actualización de enterocolitis necrosante
Rev Mex Pediatr 2015; 82 (5)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 47
Paginas: 175-185
Archivo PDF: 385.30 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

La enterocolitis necrosante (ECN) es la causa más frecuente de enfermedad gastrointestinal adquirida y emergencia quirúrgica en el neonato; afecta predominantemente al pretérmino con muy bajo peso al nacer. La incidencia reportada varía de un país a otro de 5 a 15%. La patogénesis de la ECN es multifactorial y aunque no está claramente definida, se tiene la teoría de que la integridad del tracto gastrointestinal (TGI) se ve comprometida como resultado de la interacción de inmadurez intestinal, alteración de la microbiota, alimentación enteral e isquemia. La mortalidad continúa siendo elevada (20-50%) a pesar de importantes avances en el cuidado del prematuro extremo. Las medidas preventivas utilizadas han mostrado un gran impacto sobre la incidencia y morbilidad de la ECN. Los sobrevivientes pueden tener complicaciones y secuelas a corto y largo plazo, como sepsis, colestasis, desnutrición extrauterina, síndrome de intestino corto y alteraciones en el crecimiento y neurodesarrollo (35%).


Palabras clave: Recién nacido pretérmino, enterocolitis necrosante.


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