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>Revistas >Revista Biomédica >Año 2017, No. 2


Pérez-Padilla EA, Cervantes-Ramírez VM, Hijuelos-García NA, Pineda-Cortés JC, Salgado-Burgos H
Prevalencia, causas y tratamiento de la depresión Mayor
Rev Biomed 2017; 28 (2)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 210
Paginas: 73-98
Archivo PDF: 379.45 Kb.


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RESUMEN

La depresión mayor representa un problema de salud pública debido a su alta prevalencia. La etiología de la depresión es compleja ya que en ella intervienen factores psicosociales, genéticos, y biológicos. Entre los factores psicosociales, se ha observado que los primeros episodios depresivos aparecen después de algún evento estresante, y el estrés que acompaña al primer episodio produce cambios a largo plazo en la fisiología cerebral que pueden producir variaciones a nivel estructural y en el funcionamiento de diferentes áreas cerebrales. Entre los factores genéticos que intervienen en el trastorno depresivo, se ha reportado que alrededor de 200 genes están relacionados con el trastorno depresivo mayor. Dentro de los factores biológicos, existen evidencias de alteraciones a nivel de neurotransmisores, citosinas y hormonas, cuyas acciones inducen modificaciones estructurales y funcionales en el sistema nervioso central, en el sistema inmunológico y en el sistema endocrino, que incrementan el riesgo de padecer la depresión mayor. A pesar de años de estudio, las bases biológicas del trastorno depresivo mayor y el mecanismo preciso de la eficacia antidepresiva siguen siendo poco claras. El objetivo de la presente revisión es resumir las principales conclusiones de la literatura clínica y experimental en relación con la etiología del trastorno depresivo mayor.


Palabras clave: Depresión mayor, neurotransmisores, neuroplasticidad, serotonina, norepinefrina, sistema inmune.


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