2007, Number S2
Gac Med Mex 2007; 143 (S2)
Martínez-Álvarez JC, Arrazola-García A, Suárez-Cruz A
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ABSTRACTThe nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) is a new laboratory technology with the potential to detect viremia, better than current screening methods. It avoids inoculating infectious agents into transfusion recipients and improves the safety of the blood supply. The discovery of DNA amplification techniques has brought about a revolution in Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) typing by detecting polymorphisms at the allele level. NAT is an important tool for bone marrow, solid organ and umbilical cord blood transplantation. It can also detect susceptibility alleles associated with HLA (e.g. HLA-B27 related to ankylosing spondylitis). The use of Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR’s) following a graft is another contribution of the molecular techniques that guarantees the success of the transplantation. Molecular knowledge has widened the possibilities to apply molecular genotyping in several areas of transfusion medicine. We are currently able to solve clinically relevant problems that were not feasible before the advent of this technology as were the discrepancies between ABO typing and other blood groups.