2008, Number 1
PDF size: 137.56 Kb.
ABSTRACTThe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by an unreversible and progressive air flow obstruction, secondary to the exposition of tobacco and biomass fumes. The worldwide prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is 10%, in México is higher with an steem of 18.4%. Its more important symptoms are: dyspnea, long data cogh and expectoration, lost weight, anxiety and mood disorders. Its diagnostic requires an spirometry. Once the disease is established the treatment is just symptomatic, and its objective is to improve the quality of life of the subject; the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be avoided removing the aggressive stimulus on time, thats why smoking cessation is important. To achieve smoking cessation is necessary to combine non-pharmacologic strategies like: medical advice and psychological therapy with pharmacologic treatment which includes nicotine substitution therapy, bupropion and varenicline.
Sansores RH, Ramírez-Venegas A. Guías para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Rev Neumo Cir Tórax 2006; 2: 7S-78S.
Global strategy for diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Document 2006. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease. www.goldcopd.org
Buist AS, Vollmer WM, Sullivan SD, Weiss KB, Lee TA. The Burden of obstructive lung disease initiative (BOLD): Rationale and designs. J COPD 2005; 2: 277-83.
Menzes AM, Pérez-Padilla R, Jardim JR, Miuno A, López MV. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five Latin American Cities (the PLATINO study): a prevalence study. Lancet 2005; 366: 1875-81.
Pérez-Padilla R, Regalado J, Vedal S, Pare P, Chapela R. Exposure to biomass smoke and chronic airway disease in mexican women. A case-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154: 701-6.
Barnes PJ. Molecular genetics of COPD. Thorax 1999; 54: 245-52.
Stockley RA. The role of the proteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150: 109S-113S.
Pérez-Padilla JR, Valdivia G, Miuño A, López MV, Márquez MN. Valores de referencia espirométricos en 5 grandes ciudades de Latinoamérica para sujetos de 40 o más años de edad. Arch Bronconeumol 2006; 42: 317-25.
Calverley PM. The role of corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 26: 235-45.
American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement on pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 1390-413.
Simberkoff LA, Cross AP, Al-Ibrahim M, Ballch AL, Geiseler PJ. Efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine in high risk patients. Results of a veterans administration cooperative study. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 1318-27.
Nichols K, Margolis K, Wuorenma J, Von Sternberg T. The efficacy and cost effectiveness of vaccination against influenza among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 778-84.
Senbaklavaci O, Wisser W, Klepetko W. Successful lung volume reduction surgery brings patients into better condition for later lung transplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002; 22: 363-7.
Building Blocks for Tobacco Control and handbook. Tools for advancing tobacco control in the 21st century. World Health Organization, 2004.
Prochaskas JO, Velicer WF, Di Clemente C, Fava J. Measuring processes of change: applications to the cessation of Smoking. J Consult Clin Psicol 1988; 56: 520-8.
Sánchez-Meca J, Olivares-Rodríguez J, Alcázar A. The Problem of tobacco addiction: Meta-Analysis of Behavioural treatments in Spain. Psychology in Spain 1999; 13: 36-45.
West R, McNeill A, Raw M. Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals: an update. Thorax 2000; 55: 987-99.
Silagy C, Lancaste T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 3: CD000146.
Tonnesen P, Carrozi L, Fagerström KO, Gratziou C, Jimenez-Ruiz C, Nardini S, Viegi G, Lazzaro C, Campell IA, Dagli E, West R. Smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases: a high priority, integral component of therapy. Eur Respir J 2007; 29: 390-417.
Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 4: CD000031.
Tashkin DP, Kanner R, Bailey W. Smoking cessation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Lancet 2001; 357: 1571-5.
Gonzalez D, Rennard SI, Nides M. Varenicline, an a4b2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. JAMA 2006; 296: 47-55.
Jorenby DE, Hays T, Rigotti NA. Efficacy of varenicline, an a4b2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist vs placebo or sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation. JAMA 2006; 296: 56-63.
Tonstad S, Tonnesen P, Hajek P et al. Effect of maintenance therapy with varenicline on smoking cessation. JAMA 2006; 296: 64-71.