2006, Number 3
Rev Invest Clin 2006; 58 (3)
Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after preoperative chemoradiation therapy and low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for locally advanced rectal cancer
Rodríguez-Ramírez SE, Uribe A, Ruiz-García EB, Labastida S, Luna-Pérez P
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ABSTRACTBackground. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after preoperative chemoradiation plus low anterior resection and total mesorectal excision remain uncertain. Objective. To analyze, the associated risk factors with colorectal anastomosis leakage following preoperative chemo-radiation therapy and low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Materials and methods. Between January 1992 and December 2000, 92 patients with rectal cancer were treated with 45 Gy of preoperative radiotherapy and bolus infusion of 5-FU 450 mg/m2 on days 1-5 and 28-32, six weeks later low anterior resection was performed. Univariate analysis was performed as to find the risk factors for colorectal anastomotic leakage. Results. There were 48 males and 44 females, mean age was 55.8 years. Mean tumor location above the anal verge was 7.4 ± 2.6 cm. Preoperative mean levels of albumin and lymphocytes were 3.8 g/dL and 1,697/µL, respectively. Mean distal margin was 2.9 ± 1.4 cm. Multivisceral resection was performed in 11 patients (13.8%), 32 patients (35%) had diverting stoma. Mean preoperative hemorrhage was 577 ± 381 mL, and 27 patients (24%) received blood transfusion. Ten patients (10.9%) had anastomotic leakage. No operative mortality occurred. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage were: gender (male) and tumor size › 4 cm. Three patients of the group without colostomy required a mean of six days in the unit of intensive care; mean time of hospital stay of patients with and without protective colostomy was 12.4 ± 4.5 days vs. 18.3 ± 5.2 days (p = 0.01). Conclusion. In male patients with rectal adenocarcinoma measuring › 4 cm, treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy + low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision, a diverting stoma should be performed to avoid major morbidity due to anastomotic leak.