2007, Number 5
PDF size: 57.88 Kb.
ABSTRACTAron et al. demonstrated the critical role of right inferior frontal cortex in suppressing an already initiated manual response, yet it is unclear how this inhibitory function is implemented in the motor system. Mink suggested that the basal ganglia and specially the subthalamic nucleus, could play an important role because it suppresses the “direct” fronto-striatal pathway that is activated by response initiation. We want to study the inhibition response during the initiated response performed by Parkinson´s disease (PD) patients in order to find the appropriate paradigm for further activation studies using functional magnetic resonance. Two groups were selected: 10 PD patients (without surgical treatment) and a control group (healthy subjects) with similar age and educational level. Subjects performed a computerized test, Stop Signal Task, which examines the motor inhibiton control, measuring the latency of inhibitory process to stop the initiated response. Two arrows, with opposite directions appear at the screen and the subject will press the similar key on the keyboard. First, we calculate the typical reaction time for each subject in the GO condition. Then, the test was conducted, introducing the STOP signal (25% of 500 trials). Results showed differences between groups because the mistakes and reaction time on the GO condition were higher in the PD patients.
Aron AR, Fletcher PC, Bullmore ET, et al. Stop–signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans. Nat Neurosci 2003; 6: 115-16.
Mink JW. The basal ganglia: focused selection and inhibition of competing motor programs. Prog Neurobiol 1996; 50: 381-425.
Garavan H, Ross TJ, Stein EA. Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: an event-related functional MRI study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 8301-6.
Kawashima R, Satoh K, Itoh H, et al. Functional anatomy of GO/NOGO discrimination and response selection – a PET study in man. Brain Res 1996; 728: 79-89.
Konishi S, Nakajima K, Uchida I, et al. Common inhibitory mechanism in human inferior prefrontal cortex revealed by event-related functional MRI. Brain 1999; 122: 981-91.
Rieger M, Gauggel S, Burmeister K. The role of the frontal lobes and the basal ganglia in the inhibition of ongoing responses. Neuropsychol 2003; 17: 272-82.
Rubia K, Russell T, Overmeyer S, et al. Mapping motor inhibition: conjunctive brain activations across different versions of go/no-go and stop tasks. Neuroimage 2003; 13: 250-61.
Cooper JA, Sagar HJ, Tidswell P, et al. Slowed central processing in simple and go/no-go reaction time tasks in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1994; 117: 517-29.
Alexander GE, Crutcher MD, DeLong MR. Basal gangliathalamocortical circuits: parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, “prefrontal” and “limbic” functions. Prog Brain Res 1990; 85: 119-46.
Kropotov JD, Etlinger SC. Selection of actions in the basal gangliathalamocortical circuits: review and model. Int J Psychophysiol 1999; 31: 197-217.
Wichmann T, DeLong MR. Functional and pathophysiological models of the basal ganglia. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1996; 6: 751-8.
Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychol 1971; 9: 97-113.
Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 1967; 17: 427-42.
Logan GD. Attention, automaticity, and the ability to stop a speeded choice response. In: Long J, Baddeley A, eds. Attention and Performance IX. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1981: 205-22.
Williams BR, Ponesse JS, Schachar RJ, et al. Development of inhibitory control across the life span. Dev Psychol 1999; 35: 205-13.
Kaernbach C. Simple adaptive testing with the weighted up down method. Percept Psychophys 1991;49:227–9.
Gauntlett-Gilbert J, Brown VJ. Reaction time deficit and Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1998; 22: 865-81.
Wang J, Thomas JR, Stelmach GE. A meta-analysis on cognitive slowing in Parkinson’s disease: are simple and choice reaction times differentially impaired? Parkinsonism Relat Disord 1998; 4: 17-29.
Band GPH, van Boxtel GJM. Inhibitory motor control in stop paradigms: review and reinterpretation of neural mechanisms. Acta Psychol 1999; 101: 179-211.
Apicella P, Scarnati E, Ljungberg T, et al. Neuronal activity in monkey striatum related to the expectation of predictable environmental events. J Neurophysiol 1992; 68: 945-60.
Band GPH, van der Molen MW, Logan GD. Horse-race model simulations of the stop-signal procedure. Act Psycholog 2003; 112: 105-42.
Logan GD. On the ability to inhibit thought and action: a users’ guide to the stop signal paradigm. In: Dagenbach D, Carr TH, eds. Inhibitory Processes in Attention, Memory and Language. San Diego: Academic Press; 1994, 189-239.
Webster DD. Critical analysis of the disability in Parkinson’s disease. Mod Treat 1968; 5: 257-82.
Sturm W, Willmes K. LPS-Keine LPS-Kurzform für Hirngeschädigte Patienten; mit Anleitungen zur psychometrischen Einzelfalldiagnostik [LPS-Ka short form of the Leistungspruefsystem for brain damaged patients with instructions for psychometric single case diagnosis]. Diagnostic 1983; 29: 346-58.
Sturm W, Willmes K, Horn W. Leistungsprüfsystem für 50-90jährige (LPS 50+).[Achievement Measure for 50- to 90-Year-Olds]. Göttingen: Hogrefe, 1993.
Horn W. Leistungsprüfsystem LPS [Achievement Measure System]. Göttingen, Hogrefe: 1983.
Baldo JV, Shimamura AP. Letter and category fluency in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychol 1998; 12: 259-67.
Heubrock D. Der Auditiv-Verbale Lerntest (AVLT) in der klinischen und experimentellen Neuropsychol. Durchfuehrung, Auswertung und Forschungsergebnisse [The Auditiv-Verbaler Lerntest (AVLT), a German version of the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, in clinical and experimental neuropsychology]. Z Different Diagnost Psychol 1992; 13: 161-74.
Lezak MD. Neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Truong MK. Short Wisconsin Card Sorting Test nach Nelson 1976, Version 1.1. Wuppertal: Universität-GHS Wuppertal, Klinische Psychologie, 1993.
Nelson HE. A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects. Cortex 1976; 12: 313–24.
Milner B. Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man. In: Warren JM, Akert K, eds. The frontal granular cortex and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964: 313–34.
Berry EL, Nicolson RI, Foster JK, et al. Slowing of reaction time in Parkinson’s disease: the involvement of the frontal lobes. Neuropsychology 1999; 37: 787-95.
Radloff LS. The CES–D scale: a self report Major Depressive Disorder scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Measurement 1977; 1: 385–401.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
McGarry T, Franks IM. A horse race between independent processes: evidence for a phantom point of no return in the preparation of a speeded motor response. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 1997; 23: 1533-42.
Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics, 3rd edn. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, 1996.
Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988.
Taylor AE, Saint-Cyr JA. The neuropsychology of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cogn 1995; 28: 281-96.
van den Wildenberg W. Neuro-stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, but not the thalamus, facilitates response inhibition in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In: van den Wildenberg W, ed. Perspectives on stopping behavior: Process analyses of stop-signal inhibition. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. www.wery.dds.nl/ (last accessed 16 Jan 2004).
Blandini F, Nappi G, Tassorelli C, et al. Functional changes of the basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neurobiol 2000; 62: 63-88.