2016, Number 4
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ABSTRACTRaised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a severe complication that often leads to adverse outcomes. In the critically ill neuroimaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans entail transfer of a critically ill patient out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), besides being an impracticable tool for repeat examinations at frequent intervals as may be necesary. Invasive measurement by an intraventricular or intraparenchymal catheter is the gold standard and used extensively in the management of traumatic brain injury; however, it may not be fesaible in a heterogeneous group of medical patients. Dilatation of the optic nerve sheat (ONS) has been shown to be a much earlier manifestation of ICP rise. The ONS is fairly easy to visualize by ultrasonography by insonation across the orbit. The optic nerve sheat diameter (ONSD), measured at a fixed distance behind the retina has been evaluated to diagnose and measure intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, and extense cerebral infarcts.
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