2017, Number 4
An Med Asoc Med Hosp ABC 2017; 62 (4)
Treviño BX, Luna MM, Iglesias LJ, Bernárdez ZI, Braverman BA
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ABSTRACTIntroduction: The preterm newborn faces various physiological changes in the stimuli-loaded environment of a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). An important cause of stress, postural anomalies and altered muscle tone acquisition is the lack of a body-support aid. Objective: To compare the use of two body-support aids to optimize posture and muscle tone in preterm neonates. Material and methods: Prospective, longitudinal study that included preterm neonates born in Hospital Español de México. The newborns were assigned into three groups according to the body-support aid: 1) «uterus» positioning aid, 2) neonatal nest, 3) control group. Once the patient was discharged, an assessment of seven postural and tone anomalies was made; a score of zero meant no anomalies. Logistic regression models were adjusted with the intention to determine the association between the body-support aid and each of the studied parameters; a linear regression model established the association of the support aid with the assessment score. Results: A total of 43 newborns were studied; 30.2% used the neonatal nest, 34.9% used a «uterus» positioning aid and 34.9% didn’t use anything. The newborns with neonatal nest obtained two points less in the score compared to the control group adjusted by covariables (β = -2, 95% CI -3.29, -0.77, p ‹ 0.002); those with a «uterus» positioning aid obtained one point less adjusted for the same variables (β = -1, 95% CI [-2.35, -0.23], p = 0.018). Conclusion: Implementing the routine use of positional body aids for preterm newborns in the NICU, especially a neonatal nest-type aid, helps to reduce anomalies in muscle tone and posture.