2019, Number 1
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ABSTRACTMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of approximately 17-24 nucleotides in length, which complementarily and mainly bind in 3’ UTR (untranslated region) regions of different messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Their general function is to negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, thus inhibiting translation. miRNA abnormal expression profiles of have been found in different human fluids, cells and tissues affected by different autoimmune diseases, and some of them have been proposed as potential biomarkers of diagnosis, prognosis, activity etc. in these pathologies. In addition, common variants of the human genome, called single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within miRNA genes, have been associated with susceptibility, severity and activity in these diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe miRNA biogenesis and function, as well as the expression profiles and SNPs in miRNA genes that are associated with different autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimotos thyroiditis and Graves disease), systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren’s syndrome.
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