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>Revistas >Revista de la Asociación Dental Mexicana >Año 2011, No. 6


Ojeda GF,Puente SF,Goldaracena AMP,Montero RVM
Estudio in vitro de resistencia a la fractura de dientes tratados con endodoncia y restaurados con dos sistemas de postes
Rev ADM 2011; 68 (6)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 70
Paginas: 290-297
Archivo PDF: 231.58 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar la resistencia a la fractura después de recibir fuerzas de tensión o compresión de dientes unirradiculares tratados endodónticamente y restaurados con postes vaciados o prefabricados.
Metodología: Se realizó un estudio experimental in vitro, usando 60 dientes unirradiculares de reciente extracción a los que se realizó tratamiento de endodoncia con instrumentación manual. Las muestras se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos de estudio de 30 cada uno de ellos y en los que se realizaron dos diferentes técnicas de postes: Grupo A (postes prefabricados) y grupo B (postes colados). Una vez cementados, se sometieron a fuerzas de tensión y compresión.
Resultados: Los resultados para la prueba de tensión indican que existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p = 0.04) entre los grupos ya que el de postes vaciados necesitó más fuerza para ser desalojado que el grupo de postes prefabricados. El resultado de la prueba de compresión demostró que los postes vaciados requieren de una menor fuerza compresiva para desalojar que los postes prefabricados, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos (p = 0.001).
Conclusiones: Los postes vaciados necesitaron menor fuerza de compresión que los postes prefabricados para fracturar el diente, lo que pude ser como resultado del desgaste que sufre el remanente para recibir el poste. Los endopostes vaciados soportaron mejor las fuerzas de tensión o desalojo debido a que es una sola estructura y presenta una superficie mayor de contacto entre la superficie interna de la preparación y el poste. Los endopostes prefabricados al recibir cualquiera de las dos fuerzas no fracturaron el diente; sin embargo, la falla ocurrió en el cementado del poste, en la reconstrucción con resina o en ambos.


Palabras clave: Endopostes vaciados, endopostes prefabricados.


REFERENCIAS

  1. 1.Ring. Historia Ilustrada de la Odontología. Editorial Mosby/ Doyma. 2 ed. Barcelona Madrid: 1992. pp. 89-91.

  2. 2.Fauchard P. The Surgeon Dentist. Birmingham, Alabama, 2nded. vol 1 USA: reprinted by the Classics of Dentistry Library, 1980. pp. 173-204.

  3. 3.Gutmann JL. The dentin-root complex: anatomic and biologic considerations in restoring endodontically treated teeth. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67 (4):458-467.

  4. 4.Trope M, Maltz DO, Tronstad L. Resistance to fracture of restored endodontically treated teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol 1985;1(3):108-111.

  5. 5.Pontius O, Hutter JW. Survival rate and fracture strength of incisor restored with different post and core systems and endodontically treated incisor without coronorradicular reinforcement. J Endod 2002;28(10):710-715.

  6. 6.Huang TJ, Schilder H, Nathanson D. Effects of moisture content and endodontic treatment on some mechanical properties of human dentin. J Endod 1992;18(5):209-215.

  7. 7.Harvey TE, White JT, Leeb IJ. Lateral condensation stress in root canals. J Endod 1981;7(4):151-155.

  8. 8.Rud J, Omnell KA. Root fractures due to corrosion diagnostic aspects. Scand J Dent Res 1970;78(5):397-403.

  9. 9.Sorensen JA, Martinoff JT. Endodontically treated teeth as abutments. J Prosthet Dent 1985;53(5):631-636.

  10. 10.Mondelli J, Steagall L, Ishikiriama A, Navarro MF, Soares FB. Fracture strength of human teeth with cavity preparation. J Prosthet Dent 1980;43(4):419-422.

  11. 11.Sornkul E, Stannard JG. Strength of roots before and after endodontic treatment and restoration. J Endod 1992;18(9):440-443.

  12. 12.Lloyd PM, Palik JF. The philosophies of dowel diameter preparation: a literature review. J Prosthet Dent 1993;69(1):32-36.

  13. 13.Patel A, Gutteridge DL. An in vitro investigation of cast post and partial core design. J Dent 1996;24(4):281-287.

  14. 14.Marchi GM, Mitsui FH, Cavalcanti AN. Effect of remaining dentine structure and thermal-mechanical aging on the fracture resistance of bovine roots with different post and core systems. Int Endod J 2008;41(11):969-976.

  15. 15.King PA, Setchell DJ. An in vitro evaluation of a prototype CFRC prefabricated post developed for the restoration of pulpless teeth. J Oral Rehabil 1990;17(6):599-609.

  16. 16.Pierrisnard L, Bohin F, Renault P, Barquins M. Corono-radicular reconstruction of pulpless teeth: a mechanical study using finite element analysis. J Prosthet Dent 2002;88(4):442-448.

  17. 17.Ross RS, Nicholls JI, Harrington GW. A comparison of strains generated during placement of five endodontic post. J Endod 1991;17(9):450-456.

  18. 18.Assif D, Bitenski A, Pilo R, Oren E. Effect of post design on resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth with complete crowns. J Prosthet Dent 1993;69(1):36-40.

  19. 19.Plasmans PJ, Welle PR, Vrijhoef MM. In vitro resistance of composite resin dowel cores. J Endod 1988;14(6):300-304.

  20. 20.Mendoza DB, Eakle WS, Kahl EA, Ho R. Root reinforcement with a resin-bonded preformed post. J Prosthet Dent 1997;78(1):10-14.

  21. 21.Suzuki C, Miura H, Okada D, Komada W. Investigation of stress distribution in roots restored with different crown materials and luting agents. Dent Mater J 2008; 27(2):229-236.

  22. 22.Libman WJ, Nicholls JI. Load fatigue of teeth restored with cast posts and cores and complete crows. Int J Prosthodont 1995;8(2):155-161.

  23. 23.Komada W, Miura H, Okada D, Yoshida K. Study on the fracture strenght of root reconstructed with post and core: alveolar bone resorbed case. Dent Mater J 2006; 25(1):177-182.

  24. Hudis SI, Goldstein GR. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth: a review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent 1986;55(1):33-38.

  25. Smith CT, Schuman NJ, Wasson W. Biomechanical criteria for evaluating prefabricated post-and-core systems: a guide for the restorative dentist. Quintessence Int 1998;29(5):305-312.

  26. 26.Schwartz RS, Robbins JW. Post placement and restoration of endodontically treated teeth: a literature review. J Endod 2004;30(5):289-301.

  27. Qualtrough AJ, Chandler NP, Purton DG. A comparison of the retention of tooth – colored posts. Quintessence Int 2003;34(3):199-201.

  28. 28.Bergman B, Lundquist P, Sjögren U, Sundquist G. Restorative and endodontic results after treatment with cast post and cores. J Prosthet Dent 1989;61(1):10-15.

  29. 29.Sirimai S, Riis DN, Morgano SM. An in vitro study of the fracture resistance and the incidence of vertical root fracture of pulpless teeth restored with six post-and-core systems. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81(3):262-269.

  30. 30.Qing H, Zhu Z, Chao Y, Zhang W. In vitro evaluation of the fracture resistance of anterior endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber and zircon posts. J Prosthet Dent 2007;97(2):93-98.

  31. 31.Christensen GJ. Posts and cores: State of the art. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129(1):96-97.

  32. Baldissara P, Ferrari M, Scotti R. Mechanical properties and in vitro evaluation of fiber post. Characteristics and Clinical Applications. Masson SPA. Milano 2002.

  33. 33.Silva-Herzog D, Alvarado M. Evaluación a largo plazo de la técnica de condensación lateral modificada. Rev Esp Endodoncia 1986;4(3):87-94.

  34. 34.Shillingburg Herbert T, Hobo Sumiya, Whitsset Lowel D. Fundamentos de Prostodoncia Fija. Quintessence Editorial, S.L., 3ra ed, Barcelona España: 1978. pp. 127-142.

  35. 35.Wood WW. Retention of posts in teeth with nonvital pulps. J Prosthet Dent 1983; 49(4):504-506.

  36. 36.Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Post design and its impact on the root and crown. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2006;27(2):130-133.

  37. 37.Metzger Z, Abramovitz R, Tagger M. Correlation between remaining length of root canal fillings after immediate post space preparation and coronal leakage. J Endod 2000;26(12):724-728.

  38. 38.Raiden GC, Gendelman H. Effect of dowel space preparation on the apical seal of root canal fillings. Endod Dent Traumatol 1994;10(3):109-112.

  39. 39.Wu MK, Pehlivan Y, Kontakiotis EG, Wesselink PR. Microleakage along apical root fillings and cemented posts. J Prosthet Dent 1984;79(3):264-269.

  40. 40.Abou-Rass M. Endodontics. The restoration of endodontically treated teeth. New answers to an old problem. Alpha Omegan 1982;75(4):68-97.

  41. 41.Mitsui FH, Marchi GM, Pimenta LA, Ferraresi PM. In vitro study of fracture resistance of bovine roots using different intraradicular post system. Quintessence Int 2004;35(8):612-616.

  42. 42.Kakehashi Y, Lüthy H, Naef R, Wohlwend. A, Schärer P. A new all-ceramic post and core system: clinical, technical, and in vitro results. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1998;18(6):586-593.

  43. 43.Hemmings KW, King PA, Setchell DJ. Resistance to torsional forces of various post and core designs. J Prosthet Dent 1991;66(3):325-329.

  44. 44.Ho MH, Lee SY, Chenn HH, Lee MC. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the effects of posts on stress distributions in dentin. J Prosthet Dent 1994; 72(4):367-372.

  45. 45.Okada D, Miura H, Suzuki C, Komada W, Shin C, Yamamoto M, Masuoka D. Stress distributions in roots restored with different types of post systems with composite resin. Dent Mater J 2008;27(4):605-611.

  46. 46.Yamamoto M, Miura H, Okada D, Komada W, Masuoka D. Photoelastic stress analysis of different post and core restoration methods. Dent Mater J 2009; 28(2):204-211.

  47. 47.Mattison GD. Photoelastic stress analysis of cast gold endodontic posts. J Prosthet Dent 1982;48(4):407-411.

  48. 48.Cohen BI, Pagnillo M, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Comparison of the retentive and photoelastic properties of two prefabricated endodontic post systems. J Oral Rehabil 1999 ;26(6):488-494.

  49. 49.Lovdahl PE, Nicholls JI. Pin retained amalgam core vs castgold dowel cores. J Prosthet Dent 1977;38(5):507-514.

  50. 50.Zhi-Yue L, Yu-Xing Z. Effects of post-core design and ferrule on fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. J Prosthet Dent 2003;89 (4):368-373.

  51. 51.Isidor F, Brøndum K, Ravnholt G. The influence of post length and crown ferrule length on the resistance to cyclic loading of bovine teeth with prefabricated titanium posts. J Prosthet Dent 1999;12(1):78-82.

  52. 52.Heydecke G, Butz F, Hussein A, Strub JR. Fracture strength after dynamic loading of endodontically treated teeth restored with different port and core systems. J Prosthet Dent 2002;87(4):438-445.

  53. 53.Dilmener FT, Sipahi C, Dalkiz M. Resistance of three new esthetic post-and-core systems to compressive loading. J Prosthet Dent 2006;95(2):130-136.

  54. 54.Raygot CG, Chai J, Jameson DL. Fracture resistance and primary failure mode of endodontically treated teeth restored with a carbon fiber–reinforced resin post system in vitro. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14(2):141-145.

  55. 55.Sendhilnathan D, Nayard S. The effect of post-core and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19(1):17-21.

  56. 56.Komada W, Miura H, Okada D, Yoshida K. Study on the strength of root reconstructed with post and core: alveolar bone resorbed case. Dent Mater J 2006; 25(1):177-182.

  57. 57.Sidoli GE, King PA, Setchell DJ. An in vitro evaluation of a carbon fiber-based post and core system. J Prosthet Dent 1997;78(1):5-9.

  58. 58.Fraga RC, Chaves BT, Mello GS, Siqueira JF Jr. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots after restoration. J Oral Rehabil 1998;25(11):809-813.

  59. 59.Saupe WA, Gluskin AH, Radke RA Jr. A comparative study of fracture resistance between morphologic dowel and cores and resin-reinforced dowel system in the intraradicular restoration of structurally compromised root. Quintessence Int 1996; 27(7):483-491.

  60. 60.Stegaroiu R, Yamada H, Kusakari H, Miyakawa O. Retention and failure mode after cyclic loading in two post and core system. J Prosthet Dent 1996;75(5):506-511.

  61. 61.Martinez-Insua A, da Silva L, Rilo B, Santana U. Comparison of the fracture resistances of pulpless teeth restored with a cast post and core or carbon-fiber post whit a composite core. J Prosthet Dent 1998;80(5):527-532.

  62. 62.Robbins JW. Guideliness for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 1990;120(5):558-566.

  63. 63.Llena-Puy MC. Forner-Navarro L, Barbero-Navarro I. Vertical root fracture in endodontically treated teeth: a review of 25 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;92(5):553-555.

  64. 64.Isidor F, Brøndum K. Intermittent loading of teeth with tapered, individually cast or prefabricated, parallel-sided posts. Int J Prosthodont 1992;5(3):257-261.

  65. 65.Pithan S, Vieira Rde S, Chain MC. Tensile bond strength of intracanal posts in primary anterior teeth: an in vitro study. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002;27(1);35-39.

  66. 66.Purton DG, Love RM, Rigidity and retention of carbon fibre and versus stainless steel root canal posts. Int Endod J 1996;29(4):262-265.

  67. Gómez -Polo M, Llidó B, Rivero A, Del Rio J, Celemin A. A 10–Year retrospective study of the survival rate of teeth restored with metal prefabricated posts versus cast metal posts and cores. J Dent 2010;38(11):916-920.

  68. 68.Hatzikyriakos AH, Reisis GI, Tsingos N. A 3-year postoperative clinical evaluation of posts and cores beneath existing crowns. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67(4):454-457.

  69. 69.Creurgers NH, Mentink AG, Fokkinga WA, Kreulen CM. 5-years follow-up of a prospective clinical study on various types of core restorations. Int J Prosthodont 2005;18(1):34-39.

  70. 70.Torbjörner A, Karlsson S, Odman PA. Survival rate and failure characteristics for two post designs. J Prosthet Dent 1995;73(5):439-445.

  71. Ring. Historia Ilustrada de la Odontología. Editorial Mosby/ Doyma. 2 ed. Barcelona Madrid: 1992. pp. 89-91.

  72. Fauchard P. The Surgeon Dentist. Birmingham, Alabama, 2nded. vol 1 USA: reprinted by the Classics of Dentistry Library, 1980. pp. 173-204.

  73. Gutmann JL. The dentin-root complex: anatomic and biologic considerations in restoring endodontically treated teeth. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67 (4):458-467.

  74. Trope M, Maltz DO, Tronstad L. Resistance to fracture of restored endodontically treated teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol 1985;1(3):108-111.

  75. Pontius O, Hutter JW. Survival rate and fracture strength of incisor restored with different post and core systems and endodontically treated incisor without coronorradicular reinforcement. J Endod 2002;28(10):710-715.

  76. Huang TJ, Schilder H, Nathanson D. Effects of moisture content and endodontic treatment on some mechanical properties of human dentin. J Endod 1992;18(5):209-215.

  77. Harvey TE, White JT, Leeb IJ. Lateral condensation stress in root canals. J Endod 1981;7(4):151-155.

  78. Rud J, Omnell KA. Root fractures due to corrosion diagnostic aspects. Scand J Dent Res 1970;78(5):397-403.

  79. Sorensen JA, Martinoff JT. Endodontically treated teeth as abutments. J Prosthet Dent 1985;53(5):631-636.

  80. Mondelli J, Steagall L, Ishikiriama A, Navarro MF, Soares FB. Fracture strength of human teeth with cavity preparation. J Prosthet Dent 1980;43(4):419-422.

  81. Sornkul E, Stannard JG. Strength of roots before and after endodontic treatment and restoration. J Endod 1992;18(9):440-443.

  82. Lloyd PM, Palik JF. The philosophies of dowel diameter preparation: a literature review. J Prosthet Dent 1993;69(1):32-36.

  83. Patel A, Gutteridge DL. An in vitro investigation of cast post and partial core design. J Dent 1996;24(4):281-287.

  84. Marchi GM, Mitsui FH, Cavalcanti AN. Effect of remaining dentine structure and thermal-mechanical aging on the fracture resistance of bovine roots with different post and core systems. Int Endod J 2008;41(11):969-976.

  85. King PA, Setchell DJ. An in vitro evaluation of a prototype CFRC prefabricated post developed for the restoration of pulpless teeth. J Oral Rehabil 1990;17(6):599-609.

  86. Pierrisnard L, Bohin F, Renault P, Barquins M. Corono-radicular reconstruction of pulpless teeth: a mechanical study using finite element analysis. J Prosthet Dent 2002;88(4):442-448.

  87. Ross RS, Nicholls JI, Harrington GW. A comparison of strains generated during placement of five endodontic post. J Endod 1991;17(9):450-456.

  88. Assif D, Bitenski A, Pilo R, Oren E. Effect of post design on resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth with complete crowns. J Prosthet Dent 1993;69(1):36-40.

  89. Plasmans PJ, Welle PR, Vrijhoef MM. In vitro resistance of composite resin dowel cores. J Endod 1988;14(6):300-304.

  90. Mendoza DB, Eakle WS, Kahl EA, Ho R. Root reinforcement with a resin-bonded preformed post. J Prosthet Dent 1997;78(1):10-14.

  91. Suzuki C, Miura H, Okada D, Komada W. Investigation of stress distribution in roots restored with different crown materials and luting agents. Dent Mater J 2008; 27(2):229-236.

  92. Libman WJ, Nicholls JI. Load fatigue of teeth restored with cast posts and cores and complete crows. Int J Prosthodont 1995;8(2):155-161.

  93. Komada W, Miura H, Okada D, Yoshida K. Study on the fracture strenght of root reconstructed with post and core: alveolar bone resorbed case. Dent Mater J 2006; 25(1):177-182.

  94. Hudis SI, Goldstein GR. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth: a review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent 1986;55(1):33-38.

  95. Smith CT, Schuman NJ, Wasson W. Biomechanical criteria for evaluating prefabricated post-and-core systems: a guide for the restorative dentist. Quintessence Int 1998;29(5):305-312.

  96. Schwartz RS, Robbins JW. Post placement and restoration of endodontically treated teeth: a literature review. J Endod 2004;30(5):289-301.

  97. Qualtrough AJ, Chandler NP, Purton DG. A comparison of the retention of tooth – colored posts. Quintessence Int 2003;34(3):199-201.

  98. Bergman B, Lundquist P, Sjögren U, Sundquist G. Restorative and endodontic results after treatment with cast post and cores. J Prosthet Dent 1989;61(1):10-15.

  99. Sirimai S, Riis DN, Morgano SM. An in vitro study of the fracture resistance and the incidence of vertical root fracture of pulpless teeth restored with six post-and-core systems. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81(3):262-269.

  100. Qing H, Zhu Z, Chao Y, Zhang W. In vitro evaluation of the fracture resistance of anterior endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber and zircon posts. J Prosthet Dent 2007;97(2):93-98.

  101. Christensen GJ. Posts and cores: State of the art. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129(1):96-97.

  102. Baldissara P, Ferrari M, Scotti R. Mechanical properties and in vitro evaluation of fiber post. Characteristics and Clinical Applications. Masson SPA. Milano 2002.

  103. Silva-Herzog D, Alvarado M. Evaluación a largo plazo de la técnica de condensación lateral modificada. Rev Esp Endodoncia 1986;4(3):87-94.

  104. Shillingburg Herbert T, Hobo Sumiya, Whitsset Lowel D. Fundamentos de Prostodoncia Fija. Quintessence Editorial, S.L., 3ra ed, Barcelona España: 1978. pp. 127-142.

  105. Wood WW. Retention of posts in teeth with nonvital pulps. J Prosthet Dent 1983; 49(4):504-506.

  106. Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Post design and its impact on the root and crown. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2006;27(2):130-133.

  107. Metzger Z, Abramovitz R, Tagger M. Correlation between remaining length of root canal fillings after immediate post space preparation and coronal leakage. J Endod 2000;26(12):724-728.

  108. Raiden GC, Gendelman H. Effect of dowel space preparation on the apical seal of root canal fillings. Endod Dent Traumatol 1994;10(3):109-112.

  109. Wu MK, Pehlivan Y, Kontakiotis EG, Wesselink PR. Microleakage along apical root fillings and cemented posts. J Prosthet Dent 1984;79(3):264-269.

  110. Abou-Rass M. Endodontics. The restoration of endodontically treated teeth. New answers to an old problem. Alpha Omegan 1982;75(4):68-97.

  111. Mitsui FH, Marchi GM, Pimenta LA, Ferraresi PM. In vitro study of fracture resistance of bovine roots using different intraradicular post system. Quintessence Int 2004;35(8):612-616.

  112. Kakehashi Y, Lüthy H, Naef R, Wohlwend. A, Schärer P. A new all-ceramic post and core system: clinical, technical, and in vitro results. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1998;18(6):586-593.

  113. Hemmings KW, King PA, Setchell DJ. Resistance to torsional forces of various post and core designs. J Prosthet Dent 1991;66(3):325-329.

  114. Ho MH, Lee SY, Chenn HH, Lee MC. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the effects of posts on stress distributions in dentin. J Prosthet Dent 1994; 72(4):367-372.

  115. Okada D, Miura H, Suzuki C, Komada W, Shin C, Yamamoto M, Masuoka D. Stress distributions in roots restored with different types of post systems with composite resin. Dent Mater J 2008;27(4):605-611.

  116. Yamamoto M, Miura H, Okada D, Komada W, Masuoka D. Photoelastic stress analysis of different post and core restoration methods. Dent Mater J 2009; 28(2):204-211.

  117. Mattison GD. Photoelastic stress analysis of cast gold endodontic posts. J Prosthet Dent 1982;48(4):407-411.

  118. Cohen BI, Pagnillo M, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Comparison of the retentive and photoelastic properties of two prefabricated endodontic post systems. J Oral Rehabil 1999 ;26(6):488-494.

  119. Lovdahl PE, Nicholls JI. Pin retained amalgam core vs castgold dowel cores. J Prosthet Dent 1977;38(5):507-514.

  120. Zhi-Yue L, Yu-Xing Z. Effects of post-core design and ferrule on fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. J Prosthet Dent 2003;89 (4):368-373.

  121. Isidor F, Brøndum K, Ravnholt G. The influence of post length and crown ferrule length on the resistance to cyclic loading of bovine teeth with prefabricated titanium posts. J Prosthet Dent 1999;12(1):78-82.

  122. Heydecke G, Butz F, Hussein A, Strub JR. Fracture strength after dynamic loading of endodontically treated teeth restored with different port and core systems. J Prosthet Dent 2002;87(4):438-445.

  123. Dilmener FT, Sipahi C, Dalkiz M. Resistance of three new esthetic post-and-core systems to compressive loading. J Prosthet Dent 2006;95(2):130-136.

  124. Raygot CG, Chai J, Jameson DL. Fracture resistance and primary failure mode of endodontically treated teeth restored with a carbon fiber–reinforced resin post system in vitro. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14(2):141-145.

  125. Sendhilnathan D, Nayard S. The effect of post-core and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19(1):17-21.

  126. Komada W, Miura H, Okada D, Yoshida K. Study on the strength of root reconstructed with post and core: alveolar bone resorbed case. Dent Mater J 2006; 25(1):177-182.

  127. Sidoli GE, King PA, Setchell DJ. An in vitro evaluation of a carbon fiber-based post and core system. J Prosthet Dent 1997;78(1):5-9.

  128. Fraga RC, Chaves BT, Mello GS, Siqueira JF Jr. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots after restoration. J Oral Rehabil 1998;25(11):809-813.

  129. Saupe WA, Gluskin AH, Radke RA Jr. A comparative study of fracture resistance between morphologic dowel and cores and resin-reinforced dowel system in the intraradicular restoration of structurally compromised root. Quintessence Int 1996; 27(7):483-491.

  130. Stegaroiu R, Yamada H, Kusakari H, Miyakawa O. Retention and failure mode after cyclic loading in two post and core system. J Prosthet Dent 1996;75(5):506-511.

  131. Martinez-Insua A, da Silva L, Rilo B, Santana U. Comparison of the fracture resistances of pulpless teeth restored with a cast post and core or carbon-fiber post whit a composite core. J Prosthet Dent 1998;80(5):527-532.

  132. Robbins JW. Guideliness for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 1990;120(5):558-566.

  133. Llena-Puy MC. Forner-Navarro L, Barbero-Navarro I. Vertical root fracture in endodontically treated teeth: a review of 25 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;92(5):553-555.

  134. Isidor F, Brøndum K. Intermittent loading of teeth with tapered, individually cast or prefabricated, parallel-sided posts. Int J Prosthodont 1992;5(3):257-261.

  135. Pithan S, Vieira Rde S, Chain MC. Tensile bond strength of intracanal posts in primary anterior teeth: an in vitro study. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002;27(1);35-39.

  136. Purton DG, Love RM, Rigidity and retention of carbon fibre and versus stainless steel root canal posts. Int Endod J 1996;29(4):262-265.

  137. Gómez-Polo M, Llidó B, Rivero A, Del Rio J, Celemin A. A 10–Year retrospective study of the survival rate of teeth restored with metal prefabricated posts versus cast metal posts and cores. J Dent 2010;38(11):916-920.

  138. Hatzikyriakos AH, Reisis GI, Tsingos N. A 3-year postoperative clinical evaluation of posts and cores beneath existing crowns. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67(4):454-457.

  139. Creurgers NH, Mentink AG, Fokkinga WA, Kreulen CM. 5-years follow-up of a prospective clinical study on various types of core restorations. Int J Prosthodont 2005;18(1):34-39.

  140. Torbjörner A, Karlsson S, Odman PA. Survival rate and failure characteristics for two post designs. J Prosthet Dent 1995;73(5):439-445.



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