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>Revistas >Gaceta Médica de México >Año 2013, No. 2


Montiel-Ruiz RM, Acosta-González RI, Jiménez AJM
Dolor oncológico óseo: de la farmacología preclínica a los ensayos clínicos
Gac Med Mex 2013; 149 (2)

Idioma: Español
Referencias bibliográficas: 48
Paginas: 204-211
Archivo PDF: 198.81 Kb.


Texto completo




RESUMEN

En 2008, se estimó que a nivel mundial más de 12 millones de personas fueron diagnosticadas con cáncer (excluyendo los epiteliomas de cáncer en la piel) y 8 millones de individuos murieron debido a esta enfermedad. Datos recientes indican que 75-90% de los pacientes con cáncer metastásico en estado avanzado sufren de dolor severo. El dolor óseo es muy común en pacientes con cáncer de mama, próstata y pulmón en estados avanzados, debido a que estos tumores tienen una preferencia muy marcada a generar metástasis en el sistema óseo. Una vez que se inicia la metástasis en los huesos, esto conlleva una remodelación significativa del sistema óseo, fracturas, dolor y anemia; todo ello reduce significativamente el estado funcional, la calidad de vida y la sobrevivencia del paciente. Actualmente, los mecanismos que subyacen el dolor oncológico aún no se conocen completamente; sin embargo, recientes modelos de dolor oncológico en animales de experimentación, que reflejan la patología en el ser humano, están proporcionando información sobre los mecanismos que intervienen en este tipo de dolor y están orientando al desarrollo de nuevas terapias para su tratamiento. Varias de estas terapias han sido aprobadas recientemente por la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (bifosfonatos, denosumab) y otras se están evaluando actualmente en ensayos clínicos (tanezumab). Estas nuevas terapias, que tienen como blanco los mecanismos fisiopatológicos, están ampliando el repertorio de terapias para tratar el dolor oncológico óseo y con ello mejorar la calidad de vida y el estado funcional de los millones de pacientes afectados.


Palabras clave: Cáncer, Metástasis, Hueso, Analgesia.


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>Revistas >Gaceta Médica de México >Año2013, No. 2
 

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