2003, Number s1
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ABSTRACTReproduction in humans is a quite inefficient function, with general pregnancy losses of 50-75%; when diagnosis of pregnancy has been established, the proportion of pregnancy losses may vary from 15-20%. Early diagnosis of pregnancy is usually made employing highly sensitive immunoassays for the β-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin and by ultrasonography. Both methods also allow to classify spontaneous abortion as early and late, and its causes include genetic abnormalites (the most frequent), progesterone deficiency, diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, subchorionic hematoma, infections, etc. Although management usually involves dilatation and curettage, medical treatment with misoprostol or methotrexate, or by manual vacuum aspiration, is currently widely accepted. The most frequent complications are transvaginal bleeding, pain, conceptus retention, infections, and uterine perforation. Psychological complications are not rare.
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